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Combined extracts of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind and Cinnamomum tamala leaf supplementation enhances muscle strength and endurance in resistance trained males.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

A proprietary composition GMCT contains extracts of two popular Asian herbs viz., Garcinia mangostana (GM) fruit rind and Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaf. We systematically evaluated physical performance and muscle strength enhancing ability of GMCT in a preclinical mouse model followed by a 42-days double-blind placebo controlled human trial in resistance trained adult males.

METHODS

Four groups of Swiss albino mice (20-30 g body weight) (n = 6) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC), 150 mg/kg GMCT (GMCT-150), 300 mg/kg GMCT (GMCT-300) or 50 mg/kg Oxymetholone (OXY) via oral gavage for 21 days. On day 22, the animals' physical performance and muscle strength were assessed in a forced swimming test (FST) and forelimb grip strength experiment, respectively. In the human trial, thirty-eight resistance-trained young adults (mean age 26.32 ± 4.39 years, body weight 67.79 ± 12.84 kg, BMI 22.92 ± 3.54 kg/m2) completed the trial. The participants received either GMCT (n = 19; 800 mg daily) or matched placebo (n = 19) for 42 days. As primary variables, 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, and leg extension repetitions were measured at baseline and on days 14, 28 and 42 of the intervention. Anthropometric parameters and serum markers such as free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin and lactate were also measured before and after the intervention.

RESULTS

GMCT-300 mice showed significant improvement in swimming time (GMCT: 395.3 ± 81.70 s vs. CMC: 271.6 ± 56.86 s; p = 0.0166), distance (GMCT: 341.22 ± 65.88 m vs. CMC: 260.84 ± 49.15 m; p = 0.0461) and grip strength (GMCT: 43.92 ± 6.97 N vs. CMC: 35.0 ± 6.92 N; p = 0.0490), compared with the CMC group. At the end of the 42-day human trial, the per protocol analyses reveal that mean changes from baseline 1-RM bench press (GMCT: 23.47 ± 10.07 kg vs. PL: 3.42 ± 2.06 kg; p < 0.0001), leg press (GMCT: 29.32 ± 16.17 kg vs. PL: 5.21 ± 1.72 kg; p < 0.0001), number of leg extension repetitions (GMCT: 6.58 ± 2.57 vs. PL: 2.05 ± 1.22; p < 0.0001) in GMCT group were significantly improved, compared with placebo. Intergroup difference analyses show that the changes from baseline left arm (GMCT: 1.09 ± 0.36 cm vs. PL: 0.68 ± 0.42 cm; p = 0.0023), right arm (GMCT: 1.50 ± 0.44 cm vs. PL: 1.11 ± 0.43 cm; p = 0.0088) circumference and lean mass (GMCT: 2.29 ± 2.09 kg vs. PL: 0.52 ± 2.58 kg; p = 0.0404) in GMCT group were also significantly improved, compared with placebo. In comparison to placebo, GMCT supplementation did not improve free testosterone, IGF-1, insulin or lactate levels. Parameters of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urine and vital signs of the participants were within the normal range.

CONCLUSION

GMCT supplementation is effective in increasing muscle strength, muscle size and, total lean mass, as well as endurance performance.

TRIAL REGISTRATION

Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2015/01/005374), Registered on Jan 07, 2015; CTRI Website URL - http://ctri.nic.in.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Suraksha Health Village, 121, SBH complex, Gurunanak Nagar Road, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    ,

    Laila Nutraceuticals R&D Center, 181/2, JRD Tata Industrial Estate, Kanur, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, 520007, India.

    ,

    Laila Nutraceuticals R&D Center, 181/2, JRD Tata Industrial Estate, Kanur, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, 520007, India.

    ,

    Laila Nutraceuticals R&D Center, 181/2, JRD Tata Industrial Estate, Kanur, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, 520007, India.

    Laila Nutraceuticals R&D Center, 181/2, JRD Tata Industrial Estate, Kanur, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, 520007, India. krishanu.s@lailanutra.in.

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Animals
    Cinnamomum
    Double-Blind Method
    Fruit
    Garcinia mangostana
    Humans
    Insulin
    Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
    Lactic Acid
    Male
    Mice
    Muscle Strength
    Physical Endurance
    Plant Extracts
    Plant Leaves
    Resistance Training
    Testosterone
    Young Adult

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    30348185

    Citation

    Konda, Manikyeswara Rao, et al. "Combined Extracts of Garcinia Mangostana Fruit Rind and Cinnamomum Tamala Leaf Supplementation Enhances Muscle Strength and Endurance in Resistance Trained Males." Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 15, no. 1, 2018, p. 50.
    Konda MR, Alluri KV, Janardhanan PK, et al. Combined extracts of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind and Cinnamomum tamala leaf supplementation enhances muscle strength and endurance in resistance trained males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15(1):50.
    Konda, M. R., Alluri, K. V., Janardhanan, P. K., Trimurtulu, G., & Sengupta, K. (2018). Combined extracts of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind and Cinnamomum tamala leaf supplementation enhances muscle strength and endurance in resistance trained males. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 15(1), p. 50. doi:10.1186/s12970-018-0257-4.
    Konda MR, et al. Combined Extracts of Garcinia Mangostana Fruit Rind and Cinnamomum Tamala Leaf Supplementation Enhances Muscle Strength and Endurance in Resistance Trained Males. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018 Oct 22;15(1):50. PubMed PMID: 30348185.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Combined extracts of Garcinia mangostana fruit rind and Cinnamomum tamala leaf supplementation enhances muscle strength and endurance in resistance trained males. AU - Konda,Manikyeswara Rao, AU - Alluri,Krishnaraju Venkata, AU - Janardhanan,Prason Kumar, AU - Trimurtulu,Golakoti, AU - Sengupta,Krishanu, Y1 - 2018/10/22/ PY - 2018/04/26/received PY - 2018/10/09/accepted PY - 2018/10/24/entrez PY - 2018/10/24/pubmed PY - 2018/10/26/medline KW - Cinnamomum tamala KW - Endurance of exercise KW - Forced swim test KW - Free testosterone KW - Garcinia mangostana KW - Lean body mass KW - Muscle strength SP - 50 EP - 50 JF - Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition JO - J Int Soc Sports Nutr VL - 15 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: A proprietary composition GMCT contains extracts of two popular Asian herbs viz., Garcinia mangostana (GM) fruit rind and Cinnamomum tamala (CT) leaf. We systematically evaluated physical performance and muscle strength enhancing ability of GMCT in a preclinical mouse model followed by a 42-days double-blind placebo controlled human trial in resistance trained adult males. METHODS: Four groups of Swiss albino mice (20-30 g body weight) (n = 6) were fed a standard laboratory diet and given Carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC), 150 mg/kg GMCT (GMCT-150), 300 mg/kg GMCT (GMCT-300) or 50 mg/kg Oxymetholone (OXY) via oral gavage for 21 days. On day 22, the animals' physical performance and muscle strength were assessed in a forced swimming test (FST) and forelimb grip strength experiment, respectively. In the human trial, thirty-eight resistance-trained young adults (mean age 26.32 ± 4.39 years, body weight 67.79 ± 12.84 kg, BMI 22.92 ± 3.54 kg/m2) completed the trial. The participants received either GMCT (n = 19; 800 mg daily) or matched placebo (n = 19) for 42 days. As primary variables, 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, and leg extension repetitions were measured at baseline and on days 14, 28 and 42 of the intervention. Anthropometric parameters and serum markers such as free testosterone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin and lactate were also measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: GMCT-300 mice showed significant improvement in swimming time (GMCT: 395.3 ± 81.70 s vs. CMC: 271.6 ± 56.86 s; p = 0.0166), distance (GMCT: 341.22 ± 65.88 m vs. CMC: 260.84 ± 49.15 m; p = 0.0461) and grip strength (GMCT: 43.92 ± 6.97 N vs. CMC: 35.0 ± 6.92 N; p = 0.0490), compared with the CMC group. At the end of the 42-day human trial, the per protocol analyses reveal that mean changes from baseline 1-RM bench press (GMCT: 23.47 ± 10.07 kg vs. PL: 3.42 ± 2.06 kg; p < 0.0001), leg press (GMCT: 29.32 ± 16.17 kg vs. PL: 5.21 ± 1.72 kg; p < 0.0001), number of leg extension repetitions (GMCT: 6.58 ± 2.57 vs. PL: 2.05 ± 1.22; p < 0.0001) in GMCT group were significantly improved, compared with placebo. Intergroup difference analyses show that the changes from baseline left arm (GMCT: 1.09 ± 0.36 cm vs. PL: 0.68 ± 0.42 cm; p = 0.0023), right arm (GMCT: 1.50 ± 0.44 cm vs. PL: 1.11 ± 0.43 cm; p = 0.0088) circumference and lean mass (GMCT: 2.29 ± 2.09 kg vs. PL: 0.52 ± 2.58 kg; p = 0.0404) in GMCT group were also significantly improved, compared with placebo. In comparison to placebo, GMCT supplementation did not improve free testosterone, IGF-1, insulin or lactate levels. Parameters of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urine and vital signs of the participants were within the normal range. CONCLUSION: GMCT supplementation is effective in increasing muscle strength, muscle size and, total lean mass, as well as endurance performance. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI/2015/01/005374), Registered on Jan 07, 2015; CTRI Website URL - http://ctri.nic.in. SN - 1550-2783 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30348185/Combined_extracts_of_Garcinia_mangostana_fruit_rind_and_Cinnamomum_tamala_leaf_supplementation_enhances_muscle_strength_and_endurance_in_resistance_trained_males L2 - https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-018-0257-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -