Optical coherence tomography in central nervous system demyelinating diseases related optic neuritis.Int J Ophthalmol. 2018; 11(10):1649-1656.IJ
To compare the thickness of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) among patients with various forms of optic neuritis (ON) and to identify whether any particular parameters or their thinning pattern can be used to distinguish the type of ON.
This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, between January, 2015 and December, 2016. We enlisted patients over 18 years of age with history of ON and categorized patients into 4 groups: 1) aquaporin 4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG) positive; 2) multiple sclerosis (MS); 3) myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-IgG) positive; 4) idiopathic-ON patients. Healthy controls were also included during the same study period. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging to analyze RNFL and GCIPL thickness after at least 3mo since the last episode of acute ON. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to compare the data amongst ON groups.
Among 87 previous ON eyes from 57 patients (43 AQP4-IgG+ON, 17 MS-ON, 8 MOG-IgG+ON, and 19 idiopathic-ON), mean logMAR visual acuity of AQP4-IgG+ON, MS-ON, MOG-IgG+ON, and idiopathic-ON groups was 0.76±0.88, 0.12±0.25, 0.39±0.31, and 0.75±1.08, respectively. Average, superior, and inferior RNFL were significantly reduced in AQP4-IgG+ON, MOG-IgG+ON and idiopathic-ON eyes, relative to those of MS-ON. Differences were not statistically significant for RNFL or GCIPL between the AQP4-IgG+ON and MOG-IgG+ON groups, whereas visual acuity in MOG-IgG+ON was slightly, but not significantly, better (0.39 vs 0.76). Although RNFL thickness in MOG-IgG+ON was significantly reduced as compared to MS-ON, mean visual acuity and GCIPL were not different.
Thinning of superior and inferior quadrants of RNFL are more commonly seen in MOG-IgG+ON and AQP4-IgG+ON. Long term visual acuity in MOG-IgG+ON is often better than AQP4-IgG+ON, whereas the structural change from OCT is comparable.