Environmental Co-Exposure to Lead and Manganese and Intellectual Deficit in School-Aged Children.Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 10 31; 15(11)IJ
Studies have demonstrated that, for urban children, dust represents the main exposure to sources of metals like lead (Pb) and manganese (Mn). We aimed to investigate the exposure to these metals and their association with intellectual deficit in children living in an industrial region. This cross-sectional study recruited volunteers from four elementary schools in the town of Simões Filho, Brazil. We evaluated 225 school-aged children (7⁻12 years) for blood lead (PbB) and manganese hair (MnH) and toenails (MnTn) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Child and maternal IQs were estimated using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale for Intelligence (WASI). Median and range PbB were 1.2 (0.3⁻15.6) μg/dL. MnH and MnTn medians (ranges) were 0.74 (0.16⁻8.79) μg/g and 0.85 (0.15⁻13.30) μg/g, respectively. After adjusting for maternal IQ, age and Mn exposure, child IQ drops by 8.6 points for a 10-fold increase in PbB levels. Moreover, an effect modification of Mn co-exposure was observed. In children with low MnTn, association between Pb and child IQ was not significant (β = -6.780, p = 0.172). However, in those with high MnTn, the association was increased by 27.9% (β = -8.70, p = 0.036). Low Pb exposure is associated with intellectual deficit in children, especially in those with high MnTn.