[Epidemiology, risk factors and child prognosis: CNGOF Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes Guidelines].Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol. 2018 12; 46(12):1004-1021.GO
To synthetize the available evidence regarding the incidence and risk factors of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). To describe the evolution of pregnancy, neonatal outcomes and the prognosis of infants born in a context of PPROM, according to the existence of an associated intrauterine infection and to the latency duration.
Consultation of the Medline database, from 1980 to February 2018.
PPROM before 37 and before 34 weeks' gestation occur in 2-3% and <1% of pregnancies, respectively (LE2). Although many risk factors are identified, few are modifiable, and the vast majority of patients have no risk factors (LE2). Consequently, individual prediction of the risk of PPROM and primary prevention measures have not been shown to be effective and are not recommended in clinical practice (Grade B). Most women give birth within the week following PPROM (LE2). The main complications of PPROM are prematurity, intrauterine infection and obstetric and maternal complications (LE2). Latency duration and the frequency of complications decrease with increasing gestational age at PPROM (LE2). Neonatal prognosis is largely conditioned by gestational age at birth, with no apparent over-risk of poor outcomes linked to PPROM compared to other causes of preterm birth (LE2). In contrast, intrauterine infection is associated with an increased risk of in utero fetal death (LE3), necrotizing enterocolitis (LE1) and early-onset sepsis (LE2). The association of intrauterine infection with neurological morbidity remains controversial. Prolongation of latency, from gestational age at PPROM, is beneficial for the child (LE2).
PPROM is a major cause of prematurity and short- and long-term mortality and morbidity. Antenatal care is an important issue for obstetric and pediatric teams, aiming to reduce complications and adverse consequences for both mother and child.