Factors associated with freezing of gait in patients with Parkinson's disease.Neurol Sci. 2019 Feb; 40(2):293-298.NS
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common and debilitating problem in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of FOG, and to identify factors that independently contribute to FOG in patients with PD.
We included 157 PD patients. FOG was assessed using the FOG Questionnaire (FOG-Q). Patients with or without FOG were defined as item 3 in the FOG-Q.
One hundred eleven (70.7%) out of 157 PD patients presented with FOG. Patients with FOG were older, had long disease duration, were taking higher doses of dopaminergic agents, and had higher motor and non-motor scores than those without FOG. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that high modified Hoehn and Yahr (mHY) stage, Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II score, and non-motor symptom assessment scale for PD (NMSS) total score were significant predictors of a high FOG-Q score. Patients with FOG had significantly higher scores for cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary, and miscellaneous NMSS domains than those without FOG.
FOG in PD was associated with higher mHY stage, UPDRS part II score, and total NMSS score. Therefore, clinicians should consider non-motor, motor features and activities of daily living states for the proper management of FOG.