The Prevalence and Pattern of Malnutrition in Pre-Dialytic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients at a Tertiary Care Facility in Nigeria.West Afr J Med. 2018 Sep-Dec; 35(3):180-188.WA
Malnutrition is a common problem in chronic kidney disease contributing to adverse outcomes in terms of morbidity and mortality and overall poor quality of life. In our environment and indeed most other developing countries, the prevalence of malnutrition in the general population is high. The high cost and dearth of renal replacement therapy in developing countries underscores the need for identification of factors that if adequately addressed will lead to slowing down of the progression to End Stage Renal Disease.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To determine the prevalence and pattern of malnutrition in pre-dialytic CKD patients at a tertiary care renal unit in a developing country.
One hundred and two consecutive patients attending the nephrology clinic of a tertiary care facility along with apparently healthy age and sex-matched subjects were studied. Demographic data, social classification and aetiology of CKD were obtained from patients. Multiple tools were used for assessment of the nutritional status of patients in stages 2-5 CKD who are not yet on dialysis. Clinical examination, anthro-pometric measurements triceps skin fold (TSF), Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid-upper Arm Circumference (MUAC), biochemical assessment (serum albumin and serum cholesterol) and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) were used as tools for nutritional assessment for patients and compared with controls. The proportion of patients that met the International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) criteria for malnutrition was also determined.
The mean age of the CKD patients was 47±11 years with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. Prevalence of malnutrition in the CKD patients using clinical assessment was 8.8% (control=none), Body Mass Index was 31.4% (control=7.8%), Triceps skin fold thickness 46.6% (control=14.7%), serum albumin 46.1% (control=5.9%), Mid-upper arm circumference was 30.4% (control=11.18%), serum cholesterol 11.8% (control=3.9%), Subjective Global Assessment, 5.9% (control = none) and International Study of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism criteria 31.4% (control=none). The Prevalence of malnutrition increased significantly across CKD stages 2 to 5 with the use of clinical assessment (p=0.001), SGA (p value =0.001), serum albumin (p value =0.001) and BMI (p value =0.012).
Malnutrition is common in pre-dialytic CKD patients in Nigeria and possibly other developing countries. There is a need to identify those who may need nutritional intervention early as this will impact positively on the final outcome of the disease as well as reduce the number of patients progressing to ESRD.