Pharmacotherapy of obesity: Available medications and drugs under investigation.Metabolism. 2019 03; 92:170-192.M
Obesity is a chronic disease with a continuously rising prevalence that currently affects more than half a billion people worldwide. Energy balance and appetite are highly regulated via central and peripheral mechanisms, and weight loss triggers a homeostatic response leading to weight regain. Lifestyle and behavioral modifications are the cornerstones of obesity management; however, they often fail to achieve or sustain long-term weight loss. Pharmacotherapy added onto lifestyle modifications results in an additional, albeit limited, weight reduction. Regardless, this weight reduction of 5-10% conveys multiple cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. In this review, evidence on the food and drug administration (FDA)-approved medications, i.e., orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, liraglutide and naltrexone/bupropion, is summarized. Furthermore, anti-obesity agents in the pipeline for potential future therapeutic use are presented.