Mitochondrial dynamics, a key executioner in neurodegenerative diseases.Mitochondrion. 2019 07; 47:151-173.M
Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are the group of disorder that includes brain, peripheral nerves, spinal cord and results in sensory and motor neuron dysfunction. Several studies have shown that mitochondrial dynamics and their axonal transport play a central role in most common NDs such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) etc. In normal physiological condition, there is a balance between mitochondrial fission and fusion process while any alteration to these processes cause defect in ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) biogenesis that lead to the onset of several NDs. Also, mitochondria mediated ROS may induce lipid and protein peroxidation, energy deficiency environment in the neurons and results in cell death and defective neurotransmission. Though, mitochondria is a well-studied cell organelle regulating the cellular energy demands but still, its detail role or association in NDs is under observation. In this review, we have summarized an updated mitochondria and their possible role in different NDs with the therapeutic strategy to improve the mitochondrial functions.