Dermatological manifestations in Noonan syndrome: a prospective multicentric study of 129 patients positive for mutation.Br J Dermatol 2019; 180(6):1438-1448BJ
Data on dermatological manifestations of Noonan syndrome (NS) remain heterogeneous and are based on limited dermatological expertise.
To describe the dermatological manifestations of NS, compare them with the literature findings, and test for dermatological phenotype-genotype correlations with or without the presence of PTPN11 mutations.
We performed a large 4-year, prospective, multicentric, collaborative dermatological and genetic study.
Overall, 129 patients with NS were enrolled, including 65 patients with PTPN11-NS, 34 patients with PTPN11-NS with multiple lentigines (NSML), and 30 patients with NS who had a mutation other than PTPN11. Easy bruising was the most frequent dermatological finding in PTPN11-NS, present in 53·8% of patients. Multiple lentigines and café-au-lait macules (n ≥ 3) were present in 94% and 80% of cases of NSML linked to specific mutations of PTPN11, respectively. Atypical forms of NSML could be associated with NS with RAF1 or NRAS mutations. In univariate analysis, patients without a PTPN11 mutation showed (i) a significantly higher frequency of keratinization disorders (P = 0·001), including keratosis pilaris (P = 0·005), ulerythema ophryogenes (P = 0·0001) and palmar and/or plantar hyperkeratosis (P = 0·06, trend association), and (ii) a significantly higher frequency of scarce scalp hair (P = 0·035) and scarce or absent eyelashes (P = 0·06, trend association) than those with PTPN11 mutations.
The cutaneous phenotype of NS with a PTPN11 mutation is generally mild and nonspecific, whereas the absence of a PTPN11 mutation is associated with a high frequency of keratinization disorders and hair abnormalities.