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Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System-Is there Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?
J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Mar 30; 13(4):525-535.JC

Abstract

Cannabis sativa and its extracts have been used for centuries, both medicinally and recreationally. There is accumulating evidence that exogenous cannabis and related cannabinoids improve symptoms associated with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD], such as pain, loss of appetite, and diarrhoea. In vivo, exocannabinoids have been demonstrated to improve colitis, mainly in chemical models. Exocannabinoids signal through the endocannabinoid system, an increasingly understood network of endogenous lipid ligands and their receptors, together with a number of synthetic and degradative enzymes and the resulting products. Modulating the endocannabinoid system using pharmacological receptor agonists, genetic knockout models, or inhibition of degradative enzymes have largely shown improvements in colitis in vivo. Despite these promising experimental results, this has not translated into meaningful benefits for human IBD in the few clinical trials which have been conducted to date, the largest study being limited by poor medication tolerance due to the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol component. This review article synthesises the current literature surrounding the modulation of the endocannabinoid system and administration of exocannabinoids in experimental and human IBD. Findings of clinical surveys and studies of cannabis use in IBD are summarised. Discrepancies in the literature are highlighted together with identifying novel areas of interest.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Translational Gastroenterology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. MRC Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.Translational Gastroenterology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK. MRC Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30418525

Citation

Ambrose, Tim, and Alison Simmons. "Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System-Is There Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?" Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, vol. 13, no. 4, 2019, pp. 525-535.
Ambrose T, Simmons A. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System-Is there Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease? J Crohns Colitis. 2019;13(4):525-535.
Ambrose, T., & Simmons, A. (2019). Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System-Is there Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease? Journal of Crohn's & Colitis, 13(4), 525-535. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjy185
Ambrose T, Simmons A. Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System-Is There Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease. J Crohns Colitis. 2019 Mar 30;13(4):525-535. PubMed PMID: 30418525.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cannabis, Cannabinoids, and the Endocannabinoid System-Is there Therapeutic Potential for Inflammatory Bowel Disease? AU - Ambrose,Tim, AU - Simmons,Alison, PY - 2018/11/13/pubmed PY - 2019/8/6/medline PY - 2018/11/13/entrez KW - Inflammatory bowel disease KW - cannabinoids KW - cannabis SP - 525 EP - 535 JF - Journal of Crohn's & colitis JO - J Crohns Colitis VL - 13 IS - 4 N2 - Cannabis sativa and its extracts have been used for centuries, both medicinally and recreationally. There is accumulating evidence that exogenous cannabis and related cannabinoids improve symptoms associated with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD], such as pain, loss of appetite, and diarrhoea. In vivo, exocannabinoids have been demonstrated to improve colitis, mainly in chemical models. Exocannabinoids signal through the endocannabinoid system, an increasingly understood network of endogenous lipid ligands and their receptors, together with a number of synthetic and degradative enzymes and the resulting products. Modulating the endocannabinoid system using pharmacological receptor agonists, genetic knockout models, or inhibition of degradative enzymes have largely shown improvements in colitis in vivo. Despite these promising experimental results, this has not translated into meaningful benefits for human IBD in the few clinical trials which have been conducted to date, the largest study being limited by poor medication tolerance due to the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol component. This review article synthesises the current literature surrounding the modulation of the endocannabinoid system and administration of exocannabinoids in experimental and human IBD. Findings of clinical surveys and studies of cannabis use in IBD are summarised. Discrepancies in the literature are highlighted together with identifying novel areas of interest. SN - 1876-4479 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30418525/Cannabis_Cannabinoids_and_the_Endocannabinoid_System_Is_there_Therapeutic_Potential_for_Inflammatory_Bowel_Disease L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ecco-jcc/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjy185 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -