The efficacy and safety of tazobactam/ceftolozane in Japanese patients with uncomplicated pyelonephritis and complicated urinary tract infection.J Infect Chemother. 2019 Feb; 25(2):104-110.JI
We report efficacy and safety results for a combination of a novel cephalosporin class antibiotic and a β-Lactamase inhibitor, tazobactam/ceftolozane (1:2) at a dose of 1.5 g intravenously every 8 h in Japanese patients with uncomplicated pyelonephritis and complicated urinary tract infection. This study design was a nonrandomized, multicenter, open-label trial, and the treatment period was 7 days. Of 115 patients enrolled in this study, 114 received tazobactam/ceftolozane, and 90 were included in the efficacy analyses. Ninety-nine isolates (bacterial count ≥105 CFU/mL) were identified by urine culture. The main baseline uropathogens were Escherichia coli (80 isolates), Klebsiella pneumoniae (8 isolates), and Proteus mirabilis (3 isolates). Of these, 13 isolates were ESBL-producers. The favorable per-patient microbiological response rate at 7 days after the final administration of tazobactam/ceftolozane was 80.7% (71/88). The response rate in uncomplicated pyelonephritis was 90.0% (36/40), complicated pyelonephritis 63.6% (14/22), and complicated cystitis 80.8% (21/26). The favorable clinical response rate was 96.6% (86/89), and composite response rate (based on microbiological and clinical response) was 80.7% (71/88). The eradication rate by uropathogen was 83.5% (66/79) in E. coli, 42.9% (3/7) in K. pneumoniae, and 100% (3/3) in P. mirabilis. The incidence of drug-related adverse events was 17.5% (20/114 patients). The most common drug-related adverse events were diarrhea and alanine aminotransferase increased in 5.3% (6/114 patients each). Drug-related serious adverse events and deaths were not observed. These results support the safety and efficacy of tazobactam/ceftolozane and suggest it will be a useful treatment for uncomplicated pyelonephritis and complicated urinary tract infection.