Chronic Intracerebroventricular Infusion of Metformin Inhibits Salt-Sensitive Hypertension via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress and Neurohormonal Excitation in Rat Paraventricular Nucleus.Neurosci Bull 2019; 35(1):57-66NB
Metformin (MET), an antidiabetic agent, also has antioxidative effects in metabolic-related hypertension. This study was designed to determine whether MET has anti-hypertensive effects in salt-sensitive hypertensive rats by inhibiting oxidative stress in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Salt-sensitive rats received a high-salt (HS) diet to induce hypertension, or a normal-salt (NS) diet as control. At the same time, they received intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of MET or vehicle for 6 weeks. We found that HS rats had higher oxidative stress levels and mean arterial pressure (MAP) than NS rats. ICV infusion of MET attenuated MAP and reduced plasma norepinephrine levels in HS rats. It also decreased reactive oxygen species and the expression of subunits of NAD(P)H oxidase, improved the superoxide dismutase activity, reduced components of the renin-angiotensin system, and altered neurotransmitters in the PVN. Our findings suggest that central MET administration lowers MAP in salt-sensitive hypertension via attenuating oxidative stress, inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system, and restoring the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the PVN.