The Effects of Added Water and Grinding Temperature on Stability and Degradation Kinetics of Antioxidant Activity, Phenolic Compounds, and Ascorbic Acid in Ground Apples.J Food Sci. 2018 Dec; 83(12):3019-3026.JF
The effects of added water (1:0 up to 1:4 apple:water w/v) and grinding temperature on browning and antioxidant capacity of apples were investigated. Grinding apple with addition of water decreased browning and loss of antioxidant activity when ground with water up to 1:3 ratio. Browning, antioxidant capacity, major phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2), and ascorbic acid in ground apple with water (1:1) were evaluated at grinding temperatures from 5 °C to 45 °C. The degradation of antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid followed first-order kinetics. The temperature-dependent degradation was adequately modeled using the Arrhenius equation, and kinetic parameters such as k, t1/2 , Q10 , and Ea indicated that the grinding temperature was a key factor affecting retention of antioxidant activity, phenolics, and ascorbic acid contents in apple. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables can be altered by processing such as thermal treatments and grinding. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and predict the quality characteristics of the fruits as affected by processing conditions. In this study, we found grinding conditions retard the changes in color and loss in phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of ground apples. This new finding can be helpful for engineers and scientists to control and optimize the grinding system by retaining the high nutritional values of apple products.