Truly Concomitant and Independently Expressed Short- and Long-Term Plasticity in a Bi2 O2 Se-Based Three-Terminal Memristor.
Concomitance of diverse synaptic plasticity across different timescales produces complex cognitive processes. To achieve comparable cognitive complexity in memristive neuromorphic systems, devices that are capable of emulating short-term (STP) and long-term plasticity (LTP) concomitantly are essential. In existing memristors, however, STP and LTP can only be induced selectively because of the inability to be decoupled using different loci and mechanisms. In this work, the first demonstration of truly concomitant STP and LTP is reported in a three-terminal memristor that uses independent physical phenomena to represent each form of plasticity. The emerging layered material Bi2 O2 Se is used for memristors for the first time, opening up the prospects for ultrathin, high-speed, and low-power neuromorphic devices. The concerted action of STP and LTP allows full-range modulation of the transient synaptic efficacy, from depression to facilitation, by stimulus frequency or intensity, providing a versatile device platform for neuromorphic function implementation. A heuristic recurrent neural circuitry model is developed to simulate the intricate "sleep-wake cycle autoregulation" process, in which the concomitance of STP and LTP is posited as a key factor in enabling this neural homeostasis. This work sheds new light on the development of generic memristor platforms for highly dynamic neuromorphic computing.