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Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale?
Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19(12)IJ

Abstract

Fish and commercially available fish oil preparations are rich sources of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the most important fatty acids in fish oil. Following dietary intake, these fatty acids get incorporated into the cell membrane phospholipids throughout the body, especially in the heart and brain. They play an important role in early brain development during infancy, and have also been shown to be of benefit in dementia, depression, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Early epidemiologic studies show an inverse relationship between fish consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease. This led to the identification of the cardioprotective role of these marine-derived fatty acids. Many experimental studies and some clinical trials have documented the benefits of fish oil supplementation in decreasing the incidence and progression of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Possible mechanisms include reduction in triglycerides, alteration in membrane fluidity, modulation of cardiac ion channels, and anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-arrhythmic effects. Fish oil supplements are generally safe, and the risk of toxicity with methylmercury, an environmental toxin found in fish, is minimal. Current guidelines recommend the consumption of either one to two servings of oily fish per week or daily fish oil supplements (around 1 g of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids per day) in adults. However, recent large-scale studies have failed to demonstrate any benefit of fish oil supplements on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Here, we review the different trials that evaluated the role of fish oil in cardiovascular diseases.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Cardiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. AGoel@uams.edu.Division of Cardiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. NVPothineni@uams.edu.Cape Fear Valley Hospital, Fayetteville, NC 28304, USA. drmayanksinghal@gmail.com.Division of Cardiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. HPaydak@uams.edu.Division of Cardiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. tom.saldeen@uppsalapharma.se.Division of Cardiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA. MehtaJL@uams.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30469489

Citation

Goel, Akshay, et al. "Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale?" International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 19, no. 12, 2018.
Goel A, Pothineni NV, Singhal M, et al. Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale? Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(12).
Goel, A., Pothineni, N. V., Singhal, M., Paydak, H., Saldeen, T., & Mehta, J. L. (2018). Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale? International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(12), doi:10.3390/ijms19123703.
Goel A, et al. Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Nov 22;19(12) PubMed PMID: 30469489.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fish, Fish Oils and Cardioprotection: Promise or Fish Tale? AU - Goel,Akshay, AU - Pothineni,Naga Venkata, AU - Singhal,Mayank, AU - Paydak,Hakan, AU - Saldeen,Tom, AU - Mehta,Jawahar L, Y1 - 2018/11/22/ PY - 2018/11/08/received PY - 2018/11/19/revised PY - 2018/11/20/accepted PY - 2018/11/25/entrez PY - 2018/11/25/pubmed PY - 2018/11/25/medline KW - cardiovascular disease KW - docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) KW - eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) KW - fish oil KW - omega-3 fatty acids JF - International journal of molecular sciences JO - Int J Mol Sci VL - 19 IS - 12 N2 - Fish and commercially available fish oil preparations are rich sources of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the most important fatty acids in fish oil. Following dietary intake, these fatty acids get incorporated into the cell membrane phospholipids throughout the body, especially in the heart and brain. They play an important role in early brain development during infancy, and have also been shown to be of benefit in dementia, depression, and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Early epidemiologic studies show an inverse relationship between fish consumption and the risk of coronary heart disease. This led to the identification of the cardioprotective role of these marine-derived fatty acids. Many experimental studies and some clinical trials have documented the benefits of fish oil supplementation in decreasing the incidence and progression of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Possible mechanisms include reduction in triglycerides, alteration in membrane fluidity, modulation of cardiac ion channels, and anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and anti-arrhythmic effects. Fish oil supplements are generally safe, and the risk of toxicity with methylmercury, an environmental toxin found in fish, is minimal. Current guidelines recommend the consumption of either one to two servings of oily fish per week or daily fish oil supplements (around 1 g of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids per day) in adults. However, recent large-scale studies have failed to demonstrate any benefit of fish oil supplements on cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Here, we review the different trials that evaluated the role of fish oil in cardiovascular diseases. SN - 1422-0067 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30469489/Fish_Fish_Oils_and_Cardioprotection:_Promise_or_Fish_Tale L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijms19123703 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -