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Effect of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on weight loss and weight maintenance after 12 months in healthy overweight or obese adults.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2019 10; 43(10):2028-2036.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE

Intermittent energy restriction (IER) is an alternative to continuous energy restriction (CER) for weight loss. There are few long-term trials comparing efficacy of these methods. The objective was to compare the effects of CER to two forms of IER; a week-on-week-off energy restriction and a 5:2 program, during which participants restricted their energy intake severely for 2 days and ate as usual for 5 days, on weight loss, body composition, blood lipids, and glucose.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS

A one-year randomized parallel trial was conducted at the University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Participants were 332 overweight and obese adults, ages 18-72 years, who were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: CER (4200 kJ/day for women and 5040 kJ/day for men), week-on-week-off energy restriction (alternating between the same energy restriction as the continuous group for one week and one week of habitual diet), or 5:2 (2100 kJ/day on modified fast days each week for women and 2520 kJ/day for men, the 2 days of energy restriction could be consecutive or non-consecutive). Primary outcome was weight loss, and secondary outcomes were changes in body composition, blood lipids, and glucose.

RESULTS

For the 146 individuals who completed the study (124 female, 22 male, mean BMI 33 kg/m2) mean weight loss, and body fat loss at 12 months was similar in the three intervention groups, -6.6 kg for CER, -5.1 kg for the week-on, week-off and -5.0 kg for 5:2 (p = 0.2 time by diet). Discontinuation rates were not different (p = 0.4). HDL-cholesterol rose (7%) and triglycerides decreased (13%) at 12 months with no differences between groups. No changes were seen for fasting glucose or LDL-cholesterol.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

The two forms of IER were not statistically different for weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors compared to CER.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Adelaide, SA, Australia.Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia. Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Adelaide, SA, Australia.Division of Health Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia. jennifer.keogh@unisa.edu.au. Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Adelaide, SA, Australia. jennifer.keogh@unisa.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30470804

Citation

Headland, Michelle Louise, et al. "Effect of Intermittent Compared to Continuous Energy Restriction On Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance After 12 Months in Healthy Overweight or Obese Adults." International Journal of Obesity (2005), vol. 43, no. 10, 2019, pp. 2028-2036.
Headland ML, Clifton PM, Keogh JB. Effect of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on weight loss and weight maintenance after 12 months in healthy overweight or obese adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019;43(10):2028-2036.
Headland, M. L., Clifton, P. M., & Keogh, J. B. (2019). Effect of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on weight loss and weight maintenance after 12 months in healthy overweight or obese adults. International Journal of Obesity (2005), 43(10), 2028-2036. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0247-2
Headland ML, Clifton PM, Keogh JB. Effect of Intermittent Compared to Continuous Energy Restriction On Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance After 12 Months in Healthy Overweight or Obese Adults. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019;43(10):2028-2036. PubMed PMID: 30470804.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on weight loss and weight maintenance after 12 months in healthy overweight or obese adults. AU - Headland,Michelle Louise, AU - Clifton,Peter Marshall, AU - Keogh,Jennifer Beatrice, Y1 - 2018/11/23/ PY - 2018/06/13/received PY - 2018/09/02/accepted PY - 2018/08/24/revised PY - 2018/11/25/pubmed PY - 2020/5/19/medline PY - 2018/11/25/entrez SP - 2028 EP - 2036 JF - International journal of obesity (2005) JO - Int J Obes (Lond) VL - 43 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intermittent energy restriction (IER) is an alternative to continuous energy restriction (CER) for weight loss. There are few long-term trials comparing efficacy of these methods. The objective was to compare the effects of CER to two forms of IER; a week-on-week-off energy restriction and a 5:2 program, during which participants restricted their energy intake severely for 2 days and ate as usual for 5 days, on weight loss, body composition, blood lipids, and glucose. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A one-year randomized parallel trial was conducted at the University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia. Participants were 332 overweight and obese adults, ages 18-72 years, who were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: CER (4200 kJ/day for women and 5040 kJ/day for men), week-on-week-off energy restriction (alternating between the same energy restriction as the continuous group for one week and one week of habitual diet), or 5:2 (2100 kJ/day on modified fast days each week for women and 2520 kJ/day for men, the 2 days of energy restriction could be consecutive or non-consecutive). Primary outcome was weight loss, and secondary outcomes were changes in body composition, blood lipids, and glucose. RESULTS: For the 146 individuals who completed the study (124 female, 22 male, mean BMI 33 kg/m2) mean weight loss, and body fat loss at 12 months was similar in the three intervention groups, -6.6 kg for CER, -5.1 kg for the week-on, week-off and -5.0 kg for 5:2 (p = 0.2 time by diet). Discontinuation rates were not different (p = 0.4). HDL-cholesterol rose (7%) and triglycerides decreased (13%) at 12 months with no differences between groups. No changes were seen for fasting glucose or LDL-cholesterol. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The two forms of IER were not statistically different for weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors compared to CER. SN - 1476-5497 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30470804/Effect_of_intermittent_compared_to_continuous_energy_restriction_on_weight_loss_and_weight_maintenance_after_12_months_in_healthy_overweight_or_obese_adults_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0247-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -