Duplex ultrasound findings and clinical classification of lower extremity chronic venous insufficiency in a Thai population.J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2019; 7(3):349-355JV
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the clinical classification of chronic venous insufficiency and duplex ultrasound findings.
A total of 1010 limbs with clinically suspected chronic venous insufficiency were stratified according to the Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology (CEAP) classification and underwent duplex ultrasound evaluation consecutively between January 2012 and June 2015. Venous thrombosis, venous reflux, and anatomic distribution of the deep and superficial venous systems were investigated across the CEAP clinical classes.
There were 259 male limbs (25.6%) and 751 female limbs (74.4%) in clinical class C0 (24 limbs [2.4%]), C1 (130 limbs [13.1%]), C2 (452 limbs [44.8%]), C3 (183 limbs [18.1%]), C4 (163 limbs [16.1%]), C5 (31 limbs [3.1%]), and C6 (27 limbs [2.7%]). The mean age in clinical class C4-C6 (60.77 ± 14.67 years) was statistically significantly higher than in C0-C3 (55.73 ± 18.85 years; P < .001). Male limbs were shown to have a predilection for presenting with clinical class C4-C6 over female limbs (36.3% vs 16.9%; odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-3.8). Positive findings were predominantly displayed in clinical class C4-C6 compared with C0-C3 (deep venous thrombosis, 3.2% vs 1.3%; deep venous reflux, 30.8% vs 26.9%; superficial vein thrombosis, 2.7% vs 2.0%; superficial venous reflux, 56.6% vs 47.6%; perforator vein reflux, 12.7% vs 8.2% [P = .049]). A low prevalence of small saphenous vein and perforator vein reflux in C1 limbs (0.3% and 4.6%) and C3 limbs (3.8 and 6.6%) was discovered.
The prevalence of CEAP class C0-C3 was found to be higher than C4-C6. However, men were shown to have a predilection for presenting in clinical class C4-C6 over women. The mean age of patients with clinical class C4-C6 limbs was statistically significantly higher than of those with clinical class C0-C3 limbs. The prevalence of deep venous reflux, superficial venous reflux, and coincident deep and superficial venous reflux in clinical class C4-C6 limbs was higher than in clinical class C0-C3 limbs. Detection of incompetent perforator veins was shown to have a statistically significant correlation with clinical class C4-C6 limbs.