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[Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of 1 310 thermal burn patients].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2018; 34(11):802-808ZS

Abstract

Objective:

To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of thermal burn patients, so as to provide reliable basis for the rational use of antibiotics and the effective control over nosocomial infection.

Methods:

Wound samples of 1 310 thermal burn patients admitted into our burn wards from January 2012 to December 2017 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. API bacteria identification panels and automatical bacteria identification equipment were used to identify pathogens. E test was conducted to detect drug resistance of pathogens to vancomycin, tigecycline, and oxacillin. Kirby-Bauer paper disk diffusion method was used to detect drug resistance of pathogens to 31 antibiotics including penicillin G, gentamicin and rifampicin, etc., and drug resistance of fungi to 5 antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole). The WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze the constituent ratios of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi in each year; the distribution of fungi; the distribution of top 10 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios in each year; the constituent ratios of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA); the drug resistance of top 3 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios to commonly used antibiotics in each year; and the drug resistance of Candida to commonly used antifungal agents.

Results:

(1) Totally 2 183 strains of pathogens were isolated for the first time, including Gram-negative bacteria 1 194 (54.70%) strains, Gram-positive bacteria 879 (40.27%) strains, and fungi 110 (5.04%) strains. From 2012 to 2016, the constituent ratio of Gram-negative bacteria showed a decreasing trend, while that of Gram-positive bacteria showed an increasing trend year by year; and the constituent ratio of fungi was with a significantly increasing trend from 2016 to 2017. (2) Among all the fungi, the constituent ratio of Candida parapsilosis ranked the first, Aflatoxin ranked the second, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis both ranked the third. (3) From 2012 to 2017, top 10 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios, from high to low, were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia respectively. The constituent ratio of Staphylococcus aureus ranked the first in each year. The constituent ratio of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was fluctuating but showed a rising trend comprehensively. The constituent ratio of Acinetobacter baumannii went up after decreasing. (4) Among all the Staphylococcus aureus, constituent ratio of MRSA was above 65.00%, while that of MSSA was below 31.00% in each year. (5) From 2012 to 2017, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, or teicoplanin was not detected; the drug-resistant rates of MRSA to penicillin G, oxacillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin were above or equal to 80.0% in each year; the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to clindamycin and erythrocin showed an obviously increasing trend, the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to moxifloxacin and queenoputin/daputin in 2017 were higher than those in 2016, while the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to the other 14 antibiotics showed no significant change in trend. From 2012 to 2017, Acinetobacter baumannii was sensitive to polymyxin B and tigecycline; the drug-resistant rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to ceftriaxone was relatively high; the drug-resistant rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to levofloxacin, minocycline, and tetracycline were decreasing while those to the other 14 antibiotics went up after decreasing. From 2012 to 2017, Pseudomonas aeruginosa wasn't resistant to polymyxin B, and its drug-resistant rates to the other 14 antibiotics showed decreasing trends. (6) The drug-resistant rates of Candida albicans to voriconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were all zero. The drug-resistant rates of non-Candida albicans to voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were higher than those of Candida albicans.

Conclusions:

Among the pathogens from the wounds of thermal burn patients, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii had the top 3 constituent ratios; the constituent ratio of non-Candida albicans was obviously higher than that of Candida albicans. The high drug resistance rates of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanni require more attention from clinicians and the local hospital's infection control department.

Authors+Show Affiliations

State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury, Institute of Burn Research, the First Affiliated Hospital of Army Medical University (the Third Military Medical University), Chongqing 400038, China.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

chi

PubMed ID

30481922

Citation

Zhang, C, et al. "[Analysis of Distribution and Drug Resistance of Pathogens From the Wounds of 1 310 Thermal Burn Patients]." Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi = Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Burns, vol. 34, no. 11, 2018, pp. 802-808.
Zhang C, Gong YL, Luo XQ, et al. [Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of 1 310 thermal burn patients]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2018;34(11):802-808.
Zhang, C., Gong, Y. L., Luo, X. Q., Liu, M. X., & Peng, Y. Z. (2018). [Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of 1 310 thermal burn patients]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi = Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Burns, 34(11), pp. 802-808. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1009-2587.2018.11.016.
Zhang C, et al. [Analysis of Distribution and Drug Resistance of Pathogens From the Wounds of 1 310 Thermal Burn Patients]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2018 Nov 20;34(11):802-808. PubMed PMID: 30481922.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - [Analysis of distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of 1 310 thermal burn patients]. AU - Zhang,C, AU - Gong,Y L, AU - Luo,X Q, AU - Liu,M X, AU - Peng,Y Z, PY - 2018/11/28/entrez PY - 2018/11/28/pubmed PY - 2019/4/5/medline KW - Bacteria KW - Burns KW - Drug resistance KW - Infection KW - Wounds SP - 802 EP - 808 JF - Zhonghua shao shang za zhi = Zhonghua shaoshang zazhi = Chinese journal of burns JO - Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi VL - 34 IS - 11 N2 - Objective: To analyze the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens from the wounds of thermal burn patients, so as to provide reliable basis for the rational use of antibiotics and the effective control over nosocomial infection. Methods: Wound samples of 1 310 thermal burn patients admitted into our burn wards from January 2012 to December 2017 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. API bacteria identification panels and automatical bacteria identification equipment were used to identify pathogens. E test was conducted to detect drug resistance of pathogens to vancomycin, tigecycline, and oxacillin. Kirby-Bauer paper disk diffusion method was used to detect drug resistance of pathogens to 31 antibiotics including penicillin G, gentamicin and rifampicin, etc., and drug resistance of fungi to 5 antifungal agents (voriconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole). The WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze the constituent ratios of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi in each year; the distribution of fungi; the distribution of top 10 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios in each year; the constituent ratios of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA); the drug resistance of top 3 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios to commonly used antibiotics in each year; and the drug resistance of Candida to commonly used antifungal agents. Results: (1) Totally 2 183 strains of pathogens were isolated for the first time, including Gram-negative bacteria 1 194 (54.70%) strains, Gram-positive bacteria 879 (40.27%) strains, and fungi 110 (5.04%) strains. From 2012 to 2016, the constituent ratio of Gram-negative bacteria showed a decreasing trend, while that of Gram-positive bacteria showed an increasing trend year by year; and the constituent ratio of fungi was with a significantly increasing trend from 2016 to 2017. (2) Among all the fungi, the constituent ratio of Candida parapsilosis ranked the first, Aflatoxin ranked the second, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis both ranked the third. (3) From 2012 to 2017, top 10 bacteria with the highest constituent ratios, from high to low, were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia respectively. The constituent ratio of Staphylococcus aureus ranked the first in each year. The constituent ratio of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was fluctuating but showed a rising trend comprehensively. The constituent ratio of Acinetobacter baumannii went up after decreasing. (4) Among all the Staphylococcus aureus, constituent ratio of MRSA was above 65.00%, while that of MSSA was below 31.00% in each year. (5) From 2012 to 2017, Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin, linezolid, or teicoplanin was not detected; the drug-resistant rates of MRSA to penicillin G, oxacillin, gentamicin, rifampicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin were above or equal to 80.0% in each year; the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to clindamycin and erythrocin showed an obviously increasing trend, the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to moxifloxacin and queenoputin/daputin in 2017 were higher than those in 2016, while the drug-resistant rates of Staphylococcus aureus to the other 14 antibiotics showed no significant change in trend. From 2012 to 2017, Acinetobacter baumannii was sensitive to polymyxin B and tigecycline; the drug-resistant rate of Acinetobacter baumannii to ceftriaxone was relatively high; the drug-resistant rates of Acinetobacter baumannii to levofloxacin, minocycline, and tetracycline were decreasing while those to the other 14 antibiotics went up after decreasing. From 2012 to 2017, Pseudomonas aeruginosa wasn't resistant to polymyxin B, and its drug-resistant rates to the other 14 antibiotics showed decreasing trends. (6) The drug-resistant rates of Candida albicans to voriconazole, amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were all zero. The drug-resistant rates of non-Candida albicans to voriconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole were higher than those of Candida albicans. Conclusions: Among the pathogens from the wounds of thermal burn patients, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii had the top 3 constituent ratios; the constituent ratio of non-Candida albicans was obviously higher than that of Candida albicans. The high drug resistance rates of Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumanni require more attention from clinicians and the local hospital's infection control department. SN - 1009-2587 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30481922/[Analysis_of_distribution_and_drug_resistance_of_pathogens_from_the_wounds_of_1_310_thermal_burn_patients]_ L2 - http://journal.yiigle.com/LinkIn.do?linkin_type=pubmed&issn=1009-2587&year=2018&vol=34&issue=11&fpage=802 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -