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Examining changes in school vending machine beverage availability and sugar-sweetened beverage intake among Canadian adolescents participating in the COMPASS study: a longitudinal assessment of provincial school nutrition policy compliance and effectiveness.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 11 27; 15(1):121.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

School nutrition policies can encourage restrictions in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in school food outlets in order to discourage students' SSB intake. The main objective was to examine how beverage availability in school vending machines changes over three school years across schools in distinct school nutrition policy contexts. Secondary objectives were to examine how students' weekday SSB intake varies with time and identify longitudinal associations between beverage availability and SSB intake.

METHODS

This longitudinal study used data from the COMPASS study (2013/14-2015/16), representing 7679 students from 78 Canadian secondary schools and three provincial school nutrition policy contexts (Alberta - voluntary guidelines, Ontario public - mandatory guidelines, and Ontario private schools - no guidelines). We assessed availability of 10 beverage categories in schools' vending machines via the COMPASS School Environment Application and participants' intake of three SSB varieties (soft drinks, sweetened coffees/teas, and energy drinks) via a questionnaire. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine whether: i) progression of time and policy group were associated with beverage availability; and, ii) beverage availability was associated with students' SSB intake.

RESULTS

Ontario public schools were significantly less likely than the other policy groups to serve SSBs in their vending machines, with the exception of flavoured milks. Vending machine beverage availability was consistent over time. Participants' overall SSB intake remained relatively stable; reductions in soft drink intake were partially offset by increased sweetened coffee/tea consumption. Relative to Ontario public schools, attending school in Alberta was associated with more frequent energy drink intake and overall SSB intake whereas attending an Ontario private school was associated with less frequent soft drink intake, with no differences in overall SSB intake. Few beverage availability variables were significantly associated with participants' SSB intake.

CONCLUSIONS

Mandatory provincial school nutrition policies were predictive of more limited SSB availability in school vending machines. SSB intake was significantly lower in Ontario public and private schools, although we did not detect a direct association between SSB consumption and availability. The findings provide support for mandatory school nutrition policies, as well as the need for comprehensive school- and broader population-level efforts to reduce SSB intake.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada. kmgodin@uwaterloo.ca.School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Evaluation Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30482211

Citation

Godin, Katelyn M., et al. "Examining Changes in School Vending Machine Beverage Availability and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake Among Canadian Adolescents Participating in the COMPASS Study: a Longitudinal Assessment of Provincial School Nutrition Policy Compliance and Effectiveness." The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 15, no. 1, 2018, p. 121.
Godin KM, Hammond D, Chaurasia A, et al. Examining changes in school vending machine beverage availability and sugar-sweetened beverage intake among Canadian adolescents participating in the COMPASS study: a longitudinal assessment of provincial school nutrition policy compliance and effectiveness. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018;15(1):121.
Godin, K. M., Hammond, D., Chaurasia, A., & Leatherdale, S. T. (2018). Examining changes in school vending machine beverage availability and sugar-sweetened beverage intake among Canadian adolescents participating in the COMPASS study: a longitudinal assessment of provincial school nutrition policy compliance and effectiveness. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 15(1), 121. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-018-0754-5
Godin KM, et al. Examining Changes in School Vending Machine Beverage Availability and Sugar-sweetened Beverage Intake Among Canadian Adolescents Participating in the COMPASS Study: a Longitudinal Assessment of Provincial School Nutrition Policy Compliance and Effectiveness. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 11 27;15(1):121. PubMed PMID: 30482211.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Examining changes in school vending machine beverage availability and sugar-sweetened beverage intake among Canadian adolescents participating in the COMPASS study: a longitudinal assessment of provincial school nutrition policy compliance and effectiveness. AU - Godin,Katelyn M, AU - Hammond,David, AU - Chaurasia,Ashok, AU - Leatherdale,Scott T, Y1 - 2018/11/27/ PY - 2018/03/09/received PY - 2018/11/19/accepted PY - 2018/11/29/entrez PY - 2018/11/30/pubmed PY - 2019/1/22/medline KW - Adolescents KW - Canada KW - Dietary assessment KW - Longitudinal study KW - School nutrition policy KW - Schools KW - Sugar-sweetened beverages KW - Vending machines SP - 121 EP - 121 JF - The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity JO - Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act VL - 15 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: School nutrition policies can encourage restrictions in sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) availability in school food outlets in order to discourage students' SSB intake. The main objective was to examine how beverage availability in school vending machines changes over three school years across schools in distinct school nutrition policy contexts. Secondary objectives were to examine how students' weekday SSB intake varies with time and identify longitudinal associations between beverage availability and SSB intake. METHODS: This longitudinal study used data from the COMPASS study (2013/14-2015/16), representing 7679 students from 78 Canadian secondary schools and three provincial school nutrition policy contexts (Alberta - voluntary guidelines, Ontario public - mandatory guidelines, and Ontario private schools - no guidelines). We assessed availability of 10 beverage categories in schools' vending machines via the COMPASS School Environment Application and participants' intake of three SSB varieties (soft drinks, sweetened coffees/teas, and energy drinks) via a questionnaire. Hierarchical regression models were used to examine whether: i) progression of time and policy group were associated with beverage availability; and, ii) beverage availability was associated with students' SSB intake. RESULTS: Ontario public schools were significantly less likely than the other policy groups to serve SSBs in their vending machines, with the exception of flavoured milks. Vending machine beverage availability was consistent over time. Participants' overall SSB intake remained relatively stable; reductions in soft drink intake were partially offset by increased sweetened coffee/tea consumption. Relative to Ontario public schools, attending school in Alberta was associated with more frequent energy drink intake and overall SSB intake whereas attending an Ontario private school was associated with less frequent soft drink intake, with no differences in overall SSB intake. Few beverage availability variables were significantly associated with participants' SSB intake. CONCLUSIONS: Mandatory provincial school nutrition policies were predictive of more limited SSB availability in school vending machines. SSB intake was significantly lower in Ontario public and private schools, although we did not detect a direct association between SSB consumption and availability. The findings provide support for mandatory school nutrition policies, as well as the need for comprehensive school- and broader population-level efforts to reduce SSB intake. SN - 1479-5868 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30482211/Examining_changes_in_school_vending_machine_beverage_availability_and_sugar_sweetened_beverage_intake_among_Canadian_adolescents_participating_in_the_COMPASS_study:_a_longitudinal_assessment_of_provincial_school_nutrition_policy_compliance_and_effectiveness_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -