Disseminated toxoplasmosis with atypical symptoms which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus.Lupus 2019; 28(1):133-136L
Toxoplasma is a common parasite worldwide that mainly affects the brain, lungs and eyes. Although toxoplasmic encephalitis is a lethal disease without treatment, past case reports show most patients with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed toxoplasmic encephalitis were misdiagnosed and treated as neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, which led to unfavorable outcomes. We herein describe a case of disseminated toxoplasmosis affecting all the above organs with atypical symptoms, which developed with exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus. She had initially manifested with retinochoroiditis without vitritis, mild cognitive impairment and an isolated lung mass. These are completely different from the classic symptoms of toxoplasmosis that have been reported in patients with HIV infection and/or those after hematopoietic transplantation. Our case, together with previously reported cases, suggests the manifestation of toxoplasmosis that develops in systemic lupus erythematosus patients can be different from that seen in conventional cases and varies between individual patients. Our case highlights both the difficulty in and the importance of diagnosing toxoplasmosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and provides helpful information to identify this rare, devastating, yet treatable disease.