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Diesel Exhaust, Respirable Dust, and Ischemic Heart Disease: An Application of the Parametric g-formula.
Epidemiology. 2019 03; 30(2):177-185.E

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Although general population studies of air pollution suggest that particulate matter-diesel exhaust emissions in particular-is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease, direct evidence from occupational cohorts using quantitative metrics of exposure is limited. In this study, we assess counterfactual risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality under hypothetical scenarios limiting exposure levels of diesel exhaust and of respirable mine/ore dust in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study cohort.

METHODS

We analyzed data on 10,779 male miners from 8 nonmetal, noncoal mines-hired after diesel equipment was introduced in the respective facilities-and followed from 1948 to 1997, with 297 observed IHD deaths in this sample. We applied the parametric g-formula to assess risk under hypothetical scenarios with various limits for respirable elemental carbon (a surrogate for diesel exhaust), and respirable dust, separately and jointly.

RESULTS

The risk ratio comparing the observed risk to cumulative IHD mortality risk at age 80 under a hypothetical scenario where exposures to elemental carbon and respirable dust are eliminated was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 0.97). The corresponding risk difference was -3.0% (95% CI: -5.7, -0.3).

CONCLUSION

Our findings, based on data from a cohort of nonmetal miners, are consistent with the hypothesis that interventions to eliminate exposures to diesel exhaust and respirable dust would reduce IHD mortality risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

From the Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.From the Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.From the Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.From the Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.Surveillance Branch, Division of Respiratory Disease Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV.Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD. Stewart Exposure Assessments, LLC, Arlington, VA.Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD. Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.From the Division of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30489348

Citation

Neophytou, Andreas M., et al. "Diesel Exhaust, Respirable Dust, and Ischemic Heart Disease: an Application of the Parametric G-formula." Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), vol. 30, no. 2, 2019, pp. 177-185.
Neophytou AM, Costello S, Picciotto S, et al. Diesel Exhaust, Respirable Dust, and Ischemic Heart Disease: An Application of the Parametric g-formula. Epidemiology. 2019;30(2):177-185.
Neophytou, A. M., Costello, S., Picciotto, S., Brown, D. M., Attfield, M. D., Blair, A., Lubin, J. H., Stewart, P. A., Vermeulen, R., Silverman, D. T., & Eisen, E. A. (2019). Diesel Exhaust, Respirable Dust, and Ischemic Heart Disease: An Application of the Parametric g-formula. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 30(2), 177-185. https://doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000000954
Neophytou AM, et al. Diesel Exhaust, Respirable Dust, and Ischemic Heart Disease: an Application of the Parametric G-formula. Epidemiology. 2019;30(2):177-185. PubMed PMID: 30489348.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diesel Exhaust, Respirable Dust, and Ischemic Heart Disease: An Application of the Parametric g-formula. AU - Neophytou,Andreas M, AU - Costello,Sadie, AU - Picciotto,Sally, AU - Brown,Daniel M, AU - Attfield,Michael D, AU - Blair,Aaron, AU - Lubin,Jay H, AU - Stewart,Patricia A, AU - Vermeulen,Roel, AU - Silverman,Debra T, AU - Eisen,Ellen A, PY - 2018/11/30/pubmed PY - 2019/5/21/medline PY - 2018/11/30/entrez SP - 177 EP - 185 JF - Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) JO - Epidemiology VL - 30 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Although general population studies of air pollution suggest that particulate matter-diesel exhaust emissions in particular-is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease, direct evidence from occupational cohorts using quantitative metrics of exposure is limited. In this study, we assess counterfactual risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality under hypothetical scenarios limiting exposure levels of diesel exhaust and of respirable mine/ore dust in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study cohort. METHODS: We analyzed data on 10,779 male miners from 8 nonmetal, noncoal mines-hired after diesel equipment was introduced in the respective facilities-and followed from 1948 to 1997, with 297 observed IHD deaths in this sample. We applied the parametric g-formula to assess risk under hypothetical scenarios with various limits for respirable elemental carbon (a surrogate for diesel exhaust), and respirable dust, separately and jointly. RESULTS: The risk ratio comparing the observed risk to cumulative IHD mortality risk at age 80 under a hypothetical scenario where exposures to elemental carbon and respirable dust are eliminated was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.64, 0.97). The corresponding risk difference was -3.0% (95% CI: -5.7, -0.3). CONCLUSION: Our findings, based on data from a cohort of nonmetal miners, are consistent with the hypothesis that interventions to eliminate exposures to diesel exhaust and respirable dust would reduce IHD mortality risk. SN - 1531-5487 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30489348/Diesel_Exhaust_Respirable_Dust_and_Ischemic_Heart_Disease:_An_Application_of_the_Parametric_g_formula_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -