Formation, distribution, and speciation of DBPs (THMs, HAAs, ClO2-,andClO3-) during treatment of different source water with chlorine and chlorine dioxide.Chemosphere. 2019 Mar; 218:540-550.C
Formation potential and speciation characteristics of two important groups of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), namely, trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAS), during Cl2 and ClO2 treatment of water samples collected from three different sources, namely, sea, river, and reservoir, were investigated with reference to key controlling parameters. Formation of inorganic DBPs such as chlorate and chlorite was evaluated. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV absorbance (UV254) of the sea, river, and reservoir samples were 3.35 ± 0.05, 3.12 ± 0.05, and 3.23 ± 0.05 mg/L and 0.062 ± 0.01, 0.074 ± 0.01, and 0.055 ± 0.01 cm-1, respectively. For Cl2 and ClO2 treatments, the respective formation potential of THMs and HAAs from the three water sources studied exhibited unidentical trend suggesting that higher THM formation was not necessarily associated with higher HAA formation. On chlorination, the concentrations of total HAAs formed were 9.8 μg/L (sea), 12.8 μg/L (river), and 20.6 μg/L (reservoir) and total THM yields were 38.3 μg/L (sea), 18.8 μg/L (river), and 21.5 μg/L (reservoir) for a Cl2 dose of 1 mg/L and 30 min reaction time. The trend of formation of THMs and HAAs for Cl2 treatment was similar to that for ClO2 treatment. However, the amount of HAAs (3.5 μg/L (sea), 1.8 μg/L (river), and 1.9 μg/L (reservoir)) and THMs (not detected) formed was much lower than that formed during chlorination. Regardless of source water type, di-HAAs were the most favored HAAs, followed by tri-HAAs with a small amount of mono-HAAs formed for both Cl2 and ClO2 treatment. Chlorination yielded more THMs than HAAs, whereas it was reverse for chlorine dioxide treatment. Irrespective of treatment with ClO2 or Cl2, seawater samples showed the highest bromine incorporation percentage (BIP) in both THMs and HAAs followed by that for river and reservoir water samples. HAAs were found to be always associated with lower amount of BIP than THMs.