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A 2-Tier standard method to test the toxicity of microplastics in marine water using Paracentrotus lividus and Acartia clausi larvae.
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2019 03; 38(3):630-637.ET

Abstract

A 2-tier standardized protocol was designed to test the toxicity of microplastics to planktonic organisms. This approach uses sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and copepod (Acartia clausi) larvae because they are common biological models in marine research, and standard methods for toxicity testing with regulatory applications are available. In Tier I, leachates obtained at a 100 to 1 liquid to solid ratio are tested, and toxic units are calculated using a probit dose-response model to quantify the toxicity of the plastics. In Tier II, which is conducted only if significant toxicity (> 1 toxic unit) is found in Tier I, particles less than 20 μm in size are tested at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 mg L-1 , and a toxicity threshold suitable for ranking materials according to their toxicity is obtained from the 10% effect concentration (EC10) values. Results point to chemical additives as being responsible for the toxicity found in certain plastic materials. This process is suitable for both a priori identification of the hazard posed by plastic objects in the aquatic environment, and a posteriori assessment of environmental risk caused by microplastic pollution. The method also provides a quantitative procedure appropriate for ranking plastic materials according to their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:630-637. © 2018 SETAC.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Estación de Ciencias Mariñas de Toralla (ECIMAT), Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Galicia, Spain. Departamento de Ecoloxía e Bioloxía Animal, Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.Estación de Ciencias Mariñas de Toralla (ECIMAT), Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.Estación de Ciencias Mariñas de Toralla (ECIMAT), Universidade de Vigo, Vigo, Galicia, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30520156

Citation

Beiras, Ricardo, et al. "A 2-Tier Standard Method to Test the Toxicity of Microplastics in Marine Water Using Paracentrotus Lividus and Acartia Clausi Larvae." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 3, 2019, pp. 630-637.
Beiras R, Tato T, López-Ibáñez S. A 2-Tier standard method to test the toxicity of microplastics in marine water using Paracentrotus lividus and Acartia clausi larvae. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2019;38(3):630-637.
Beiras, R., Tato, T., & López-Ibáñez, S. (2019). A 2-Tier standard method to test the toxicity of microplastics in marine water using Paracentrotus lividus and Acartia clausi larvae. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 38(3), 630-637. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4326
Beiras R, Tato T, López-Ibáñez S. A 2-Tier Standard Method to Test the Toxicity of Microplastics in Marine Water Using Paracentrotus Lividus and Acartia Clausi Larvae. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2019;38(3):630-637. PubMed PMID: 30520156.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A 2-Tier standard method to test the toxicity of microplastics in marine water using Paracentrotus lividus and Acartia clausi larvae. AU - Beiras,Ricardo, AU - Tato,Tania, AU - López-Ibáñez,Sara, Y1 - 2019/01/30/ PY - 2018/10/24/received PY - 2018/11/13/revised PY - 2018/11/27/accepted PY - 2018/12/7/pubmed PY - 2019/6/14/medline PY - 2018/12/7/entrez KW - Additives KW - Leachates KW - Marine plastics KW - Marine toxicity tests KW - Microplastics KW - Risk assessment SP - 630 EP - 637 JF - Environmental toxicology and chemistry JO - Environ. Toxicol. Chem. VL - 38 IS - 3 N2 - A 2-tier standardized protocol was designed to test the toxicity of microplastics to planktonic organisms. This approach uses sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) and copepod (Acartia clausi) larvae because they are common biological models in marine research, and standard methods for toxicity testing with regulatory applications are available. In Tier I, leachates obtained at a 100 to 1 liquid to solid ratio are tested, and toxic units are calculated using a probit dose-response model to quantify the toxicity of the plastics. In Tier II, which is conducted only if significant toxicity (> 1 toxic unit) is found in Tier I, particles less than 20 μm in size are tested at concentrations between 0.1 and 10 mg L-1 , and a toxicity threshold suitable for ranking materials according to their toxicity is obtained from the 10% effect concentration (EC10) values. Results point to chemical additives as being responsible for the toxicity found in certain plastic materials. This process is suitable for both a priori identification of the hazard posed by plastic objects in the aquatic environment, and a posteriori assessment of environmental risk caused by microplastic pollution. The method also provides a quantitative procedure appropriate for ranking plastic materials according to their toxicity to aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:630-637. © 2018 SETAC. SN - 1552-8618 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30520156/A_2_Tier_standard_method_to_test_the_toxicity_of_microplastics_in_marine_water_using_Paracentrotus_lividus_and_Acartia_clausi_larvae_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4326 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -