Tuning store-operated calcium entry to modulate Ca2+-dependent physiological processes.Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res. 2019 07; 1866(7):1037-1045.BB
The intracellular calcium signaling processes are tightly regulated to ensure the generation of calcium signals with the specific spatiotemporal characteristics required for regulating various cell functions. Compartmentalization of the molecular components involved in the generation of these signals at discrete intracellular sites ensures the signaling specificity and transduction fidelity of the signal for regulating downstream effector processes. Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is ubiquitously present in cells and is critical for essential cell functions in a variety of tissues. SOCE is mediated via plasma membrane Ca2+ channels that are activated when luminal [Ca2+] of the endoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]ER) is decreased. The ER-resident stromal interaction molecules, STIM1 and STIM2, respond to decreases in [Ca2+]ER by undergoing conformational changes that cause them to aggregate at the cell periphery in ER-plasma membrane (ER-PM) junctions. At these sites, STIM proteins recruit Orai1 channels and trigger their activation. Importantly, the two STIM proteins concertedly modulate Orai1 function as well as the sensitivity of SOCE to ER-Ca2+ store depletion. Another family of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, known as the Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC) channels (TRPC1-7) also contribute to sustained [Ca2+]i elevation. Although Ca2+ signals generated by these channels overlap with those of Orai1, they regulate distinct functions in the cells. Importantly, STIM1 is also required for plasma membrane localization and activation of some TRPCs. In this review, we will discuss various molecular components and factors that govern the activation, regulation and modulation of the Ca2+ signal generated by Ca2+ entry pathways in response to depletion of ER-Ca2+ stores. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: ECS Meeting edited by Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs and Jacques Haiech.