Enrichment of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings diet with Psidium guajava: The effects on cutaneous mucosal and serum immune parameters and immune related genes expression.Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2019 Mar; 86:688-694.FS
The present study aimed at evaluation of possible effects of Psidium guajava as immunostimulant on mucosal and serum immunity, as well as related genes expression in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. In an eight weeks feeding trial, fish were fed with experimental diets containing guava leaf powder [GLP] (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1%). Then, skin mucus and serum immune parameters (total Ig, alkaline phosphatase activity, lysozyme activity), as well as immune related genes expression (TNF-alpha, IL1b, IL8) were measured. All levels of GLP inclusion in the diet brought about the increase in total Ig in the serum, while in the mucus only the highest level of GLP was effective. No significant differences were observed in mucus alkanine phosphatase activity, while fish fed 0.25% of GLP had noticeably higher serum lysozyme activity. The mucus total protein electrophoretic pattern revealed some differences between the control and the treated fish. Two high MW bands were present in the control group but not in the treated groups. Three bands with a low MW comprised between 35 and 17 mw were noticed in GLP fed carps and not in the control. Gene expression studies revealed no noticeable alterations in TNF-alpha gene between treated fish and control. However, the level of expression of IL-8 was strongly upregulated in fish fed 0.5 and 1% of GLP. Also, feeding on 0.5% of GLP significantly upregulated IL1b gene expression. Evaluation of growth performance revealed improved performance parameters in GLP treated groups. These results confirmed possible immunomodulatory and beneficial effects of GLP on common carp fingerlings.