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Levels of some heavy metals in vegetables from artisanal mining sites of Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi North Central Nigeria: any public health concern?
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2018; 69(4):335-345.RP

Abstract

Background

North Central Nigeria is the food basket of Nigeria but is also known for its artisanal mining with attendant public health consequences which is hitherto unquantified. Vegetables grown close to these mining sites may be contaminated with heavy metals.

Objective

This study has estimated health risk associated with heavy metals HM (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Se and Ni) in vegetables harvested inform the mining areas of Dilimi, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi by calculating the Daily intake, Target Hazard Quotient (THQ), Hazard Index (HI) and the Cancer risk (CR) for adults and children in the local population.

Material and methods

Vegetable, soil, irrigation water and sediments samples were collected, digested, ashed and analyzed for HM using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS).

Results

The concentration of heavy metals in vegetables were in the order Cd < Se < Cr < Cu < Ni < Zn. There were higher HM levels in soil than vegetables samples. The daily intake of HM from vegetable consumption decreased in the following order Cd < Se < Cr < Cu < Ni < Zn. At least 62.5% of vegetable samples had THQ values > 1 in Dilimi, Bukuru and Barkin ladi (Adults) while 13% of vegetable samples had THQ values > 1 in children. The THQ of nickel ranged from 0.38-2.73 and 0.21-1.53 in adults and children respectively. The bio-concentration factor ranged from 0.026-7.52, 0.01-0.36 and 0.0011-1.23 in Dilimi, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi respectively for all the studied heavy metals. The cancer risk values ranged from 0.011-0.04 and 0.00066-0.02 across all the studied areas for adults and children respectively. HI values for adults were all >1 and also the total cancer risk was above the acceptable range of 10-4.

Conclusion

Since THQ is > 1 in most of the samples, HI values > 1 for adults in all the vegetable and cancer risk above the acceptable limit consumption of vegetables from the study areas is not free of risk.

Authors+Show Affiliations

1Department of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaDepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, NigeriaDepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria1Department of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, NigeriaDepartment of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30525323

Citation

Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, et al. "Levels of some Heavy Metals in Vegetables From Artisanal Mining Sites of Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi North Central Nigeria: Any Public Health Concern?" Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, vol. 69, no. 4, 2018, pp. 335-345.
Orisakwe OE, Dagur EA, Mbagwu HOC, et al. Levels of some heavy metals in vegetables from artisanal mining sites of Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi North Central Nigeria: any public health concern? Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2018;69(4):335-345.
Orisakwe, O. E., Dagur, E. A., Mbagwu, H. O. C., Udowelle, N. A., & Offor, S. J. (2018). Levels of some heavy metals in vegetables from artisanal mining sites of Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi North Central Nigeria: any public health concern? Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, 69(4), 335-345.
Orisakwe OE, et al. Levels of some Heavy Metals in Vegetables From Artisanal Mining Sites of Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi North Central Nigeria: Any Public Health Concern. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2018;69(4):335-345. PubMed PMID: 30525323.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Levels of some heavy metals in vegetables from artisanal mining sites of Dilimi River, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi North Central Nigeria: any public health concern? AU - Orisakwe,Orish Ebere, AU - Dagur,Emmanuel Ayuba, AU - Mbagwu,Herbert Orji Chidi, AU - Udowelle,Nnvaemeka Arinze, AU - Offor,Samuel James, PY - 2019/1/4/entrez PY - 2019/1/4/pubmed PY - 2019/6/14/medline KW - heavy metal KW - vegetables KW - environmental pollution KW - public health SP - 335 EP - 345 JF - Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny JO - Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig VL - 69 IS - 4 N2 - Background: North Central Nigeria is the food basket of Nigeria but is also known for its artisanal mining with attendant public health consequences which is hitherto unquantified. Vegetables grown close to these mining sites may be contaminated with heavy metals. Objective: This study has estimated health risk associated with heavy metals HM (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Se and Ni) in vegetables harvested inform the mining areas of Dilimi, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi by calculating the Daily intake, Target Hazard Quotient (THQ), Hazard Index (HI) and the Cancer risk (CR) for adults and children in the local population. Material and methods: Vegetable, soil, irrigation water and sediments samples were collected, digested, ashed and analyzed for HM using an Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). Results: The concentration of heavy metals in vegetables were in the order Cd < Se < Cr < Cu < Ni < Zn. There were higher HM levels in soil than vegetables samples. The daily intake of HM from vegetable consumption decreased in the following order Cd < Se < Cr < Cu < Ni < Zn. At least 62.5% of vegetable samples had THQ values > 1 in Dilimi, Bukuru and Barkin ladi (Adults) while 13% of vegetable samples had THQ values > 1 in children. The THQ of nickel ranged from 0.38-2.73 and 0.21-1.53 in adults and children respectively. The bio-concentration factor ranged from 0.026-7.52, 0.01-0.36 and 0.0011-1.23 in Dilimi, Bukuru and Barkin Ladi respectively for all the studied heavy metals. The cancer risk values ranged from 0.011-0.04 and 0.00066-0.02 across all the studied areas for adults and children respectively. HI values for adults were all >1 and also the total cancer risk was above the acceptable range of 10-4. Conclusion: Since THQ is > 1 in most of the samples, HI values > 1 for adults in all the vegetable and cancer risk above the acceptable limit consumption of vegetables from the study areas is not free of risk. SN - 0035-7715 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30525323/Levels_of_some_heavy_metals_in_vegetables_from_artisanal_mining_sites_of_Dilimi_River_Bukuru_and_Barkin_Ladi_North_Central_Nigeria:_any_public_health_concern DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -