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Optimization of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis by Banana Peel Extract Using Statistical Experimental Design, and Testing of their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2019; 20(10):858-873.CP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Banana Peel Extract (BPE), and characterized using UV- Vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy showed the characteristic plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 433 nm. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for their antibacterial and antioxidant properties.

METHODS

Nanoparticle size (between 5 and 9 nm) was measured using AFM, whereas their crystallinity was shown by XRD. FTIR identified the ligands that surround the nanoparticle surface. The synthesis conditions were optimised using Central Composite Design (CCD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Silver nitrate (AgNO3) and BPE concentrations (0.25-2.25 mM, 0.2-1.96 % v/v respectively), incubation period (24-120 h) and pH level (2.3-10.1) were chosen as the four independent factors. The fitting parameters (i.e. the wavelength at peak maximum, the peak area, and the peak width) of a Voigt function of the UV- Vis spectra were chosen as the responses. The antibacterial properties of the AgNPs were tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using the tube dilution test. The synthesized nanoparticles were tested for total phenolic composition (TPC) using the Folin - Ciocalteau method, whereas their radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay.

RESULTS

An optimum combination of all independent factors was identified (BPE concentration 1.7 % v/v, AgNO3 concentration 1.75 mM, incubation period 48 h, pH level 4.3), giving minimum peak wavelength and peak width. The nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli, whereas S. aureus growth was not affected. However, no superiority of AgNPs compared to AgNO3 used for their fabrication (1.75 mM), with respect to antibacterial action, could be here demonstrated. AgNPs were found to present moderate antioxidant activity (44.71± 3.01%), as measured using DPPH assay, while the BPE (used for their fabrication) presented alone (100%) an antioxidant action equal to 86±1%, something expected due to its higher total phenolic content (TPC) compared to that of nanoparticles.

CONCLUSION

Altogether, the results of this study highlight the potential of an eco-friendly method to synthesize nanoparticles and its promising optimization through statistical experimental design. Future research on the potential influence of other synthesis parameters on nanoparticles yield and properties could further promote their useful biological activities towards their successful application in the food industry and other settings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitropoliti Ioakim 2, Myrina Lemnos, 81400, Greece.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitropoliti Ioakim 2, Myrina Lemnos, 81400, Greece.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitropoliti Ioakim 2, Myrina Lemnos, 81400, Greece.Department of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitropoliti Ioakim 2, Myrina Lemnos, 81400, Greece.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitropoliti Ioakim 2, Myrina Lemnos, 81400, Greece.Department of Food Science and Nutrition, School of the Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitropoliti Ioakim 2, Myrina Lemnos, 81400, Greece.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30526454

Citation

Rigopoulos, Nickolas, et al. "Optimization of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis By Banana Peel Extract Using Statistical Experimental Design, and Testing of Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties." Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol. 20, no. 10, 2019, pp. 858-873.
Rigopoulos N, Thomou E, Kouloumpis Α, et al. Optimization of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis by Banana Peel Extract Using Statistical Experimental Design, and Testing of their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2019;20(10):858-873.
Rigopoulos, N., Thomou, E., Kouloumpis, Α., Lamprou, E. R., Petropoulea, V., Gournis, D., Poulios, E., Karantonis, H. C., & Giaouris, E. (2019). Optimization of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis by Banana Peel Extract Using Statistical Experimental Design, and Testing of their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties. Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 20(10), 858-873. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389201020666181210113654
Rigopoulos N, et al. Optimization of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis By Banana Peel Extract Using Statistical Experimental Design, and Testing of Their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2019;20(10):858-873. PubMed PMID: 30526454.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Optimization of Silver Nanoparticle Synthesis by Banana Peel Extract Using Statistical Experimental Design, and Testing of their Antibacterial and Antioxidant Properties. AU - Rigopoulos,Nickolas, AU - Thomou,Eleni, AU - Kouloumpis,Αntonios, AU - Lamprou,Eleni Rafaela, AU - Petropoulea,Varvara, AU - Gournis,Dimitrios, AU - Poulios,Efthymios, AU - Karantonis,Haralampos C, AU - Giaouris,Efstathios, PY - 2018/06/24/received PY - 2018/09/19/revised PY - 2018/11/30/accepted PY - 2018/12/12/pubmed PY - 2020/1/10/medline PY - 2018/12/12/entrez KW - Silver nanoparticles KW - antibacterial activity KW - antioxidant activity KW - banana peel extract KW - central composite design KW - green synthesis KW - optimisation. SP - 858 EP - 873 JF - Current pharmaceutical biotechnology JO - Curr Pharm Biotechnol VL - 20 IS - 10 N2 - BACKGROUND: In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Banana Peel Extract (BPE), and characterized using UV- Vis absorbance spectroscopy, X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy showed the characteristic plasmon resonance of AgNPs at 433 nm. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for their antibacterial and antioxidant properties. METHODS: Nanoparticle size (between 5 and 9 nm) was measured using AFM, whereas their crystallinity was shown by XRD. FTIR identified the ligands that surround the nanoparticle surface. The synthesis conditions were optimised using Central Composite Design (CCD) under Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Silver nitrate (AgNO3) and BPE concentrations (0.25-2.25 mM, 0.2-1.96 % v/v respectively), incubation period (24-120 h) and pH level (2.3-10.1) were chosen as the four independent factors. The fitting parameters (i.e. the wavelength at peak maximum, the peak area, and the peak width) of a Voigt function of the UV- Vis spectra were chosen as the responses. The antibacterial properties of the AgNPs were tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using the tube dilution test. The synthesized nanoparticles were tested for total phenolic composition (TPC) using the Folin - Ciocalteau method, whereas their radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical assay. RESULTS: An optimum combination of all independent factors was identified (BPE concentration 1.7 % v/v, AgNO3 concentration 1.75 mM, incubation period 48 h, pH level 4.3), giving minimum peak wavelength and peak width. The nanoparticles inhibited the growth of E. coli, whereas S. aureus growth was not affected. However, no superiority of AgNPs compared to AgNO3 used for their fabrication (1.75 mM), with respect to antibacterial action, could be here demonstrated. AgNPs were found to present moderate antioxidant activity (44.71± 3.01%), as measured using DPPH assay, while the BPE (used for their fabrication) presented alone (100%) an antioxidant action equal to 86±1%, something expected due to its higher total phenolic content (TPC) compared to that of nanoparticles. CONCLUSION: Altogether, the results of this study highlight the potential of an eco-friendly method to synthesize nanoparticles and its promising optimization through statistical experimental design. Future research on the potential influence of other synthesis parameters on nanoparticles yield and properties could further promote their useful biological activities towards their successful application in the food industry and other settings. SN - 1873-4316 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30526454/Optimization_of_Silver_Nanoparticle_Synthesis_by_Banana_Peel_Extract_Using_Statistical_Experimental_Design_and_Testing_of_their_Antibacterial_and_Antioxidant_Properties_ L2 - http://www.eurekaselect.com/168198/article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -