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Short-term and long-term ketogenic diet therapy and the addition of exercise have differential impacts on metabolic gene expression in the mouse energy-consuming organs heart and skeletal muscle.
Nutr Res 2018; 60:77-86NR

Abstract

Although a ketogenic diet (KD) is used to treat various metabolic diseases, the organ-specific metabolic changes that occur in response to a KD remain unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that duration of KD consumption and regular exercise in addition to KD consumption affect metabolic fuel selection at gene levels in heart and skeletal muscle. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 2 groups, one fed a standard diet and the other fed a KD, and maintained for either 4 weeks (short term) or 12 weeks (long term). The long-term group was further divided into 2 subgroups, and mice in 1 of the 2 groups had an exercise load 5 days a week. Body weight decreased significantly in the KD groups during the first few weeks only. Plasma ketone levels rose and muscle glycogen levels declined significantly in the KD groups, but these changes were less severe in the KD plus exercise group. KD consumption decreased the expression of genes related to glucose utilization in heart and skeletal muscle; however, this decrease did not occur with KD consumption plus exercise. Long-term but not short-term KD consumption increased the expression of genes related to lipid utilization, regardless of exercise. In the KD groups, the expression of genes related to ketolysis was suppressed, and that of genes related to ketogenesis was increased. These results indicate that KD exposure and pairing a KD with exercise have differential impacts on energy substrate selection at gene expression levels in energy-consuming organs, the heart and skeletal muscle.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan.Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology, Tokyo Kasei University, 1-18-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8602, Japan.Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology, Tokyo Kasei University, 1-18-1 Kaga, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo, 173-8602, Japan.Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan; The Institute for Human Life Innovation, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan. Electronic address: iida.kaoruko@ocha.ac.jp.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30527262

Citation

Shimizu, Kozue, et al. "Short-term and Long-term Ketogenic Diet Therapy and the Addition of Exercise Have Differential Impacts On Metabolic Gene Expression in the Mouse Energy-consuming Organs Heart and Skeletal Muscle." Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), vol. 60, 2018, pp. 77-86.
Shimizu K, Saito H, Sumi K, et al. Short-term and long-term ketogenic diet therapy and the addition of exercise have differential impacts on metabolic gene expression in the mouse energy-consuming organs heart and skeletal muscle. Nutr Res. 2018;60:77-86.
Shimizu, K., Saito, H., Sumi, K., Sakamoto, Y., Tachi, Y., & Iida, K. (2018). Short-term and long-term ketogenic diet therapy and the addition of exercise have differential impacts on metabolic gene expression in the mouse energy-consuming organs heart and skeletal muscle. Nutrition Research (New York, N.Y.), 60, pp. 77-86. doi:10.1016/j.nutres.2018.09.004.
Shimizu K, et al. Short-term and Long-term Ketogenic Diet Therapy and the Addition of Exercise Have Differential Impacts On Metabolic Gene Expression in the Mouse Energy-consuming Organs Heart and Skeletal Muscle. Nutr Res. 2018;60:77-86. PubMed PMID: 30527262.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Short-term and long-term ketogenic diet therapy and the addition of exercise have differential impacts on metabolic gene expression in the mouse energy-consuming organs heart and skeletal muscle. AU - Shimizu,Kozue, AU - Saito,Hazuki, AU - Sumi,Kanako, AU - Sakamoto,Yuri, AU - Tachi,Yoichi, AU - Iida,Kaoruko, Y1 - 2018/09/19/ PY - 2018/04/02/received PY - 2018/09/06/revised PY - 2018/09/14/accepted PY - 2018/12/12/entrez PY - 2018/12/12/pubmed PY - 2018/12/12/medline KW - Exercise KW - Heart KW - Ketogenic diet KW - Metabolic gene KW - Skeletal muscle SP - 77 EP - 86 JF - Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) JO - Nutr Res VL - 60 N2 - Although a ketogenic diet (KD) is used to treat various metabolic diseases, the organ-specific metabolic changes that occur in response to a KD remain unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that duration of KD consumption and regular exercise in addition to KD consumption affect metabolic fuel selection at gene levels in heart and skeletal muscle. Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 2 groups, one fed a standard diet and the other fed a KD, and maintained for either 4 weeks (short term) or 12 weeks (long term). The long-term group was further divided into 2 subgroups, and mice in 1 of the 2 groups had an exercise load 5 days a week. Body weight decreased significantly in the KD groups during the first few weeks only. Plasma ketone levels rose and muscle glycogen levels declined significantly in the KD groups, but these changes were less severe in the KD plus exercise group. KD consumption decreased the expression of genes related to glucose utilization in heart and skeletal muscle; however, this decrease did not occur with KD consumption plus exercise. Long-term but not short-term KD consumption increased the expression of genes related to lipid utilization, regardless of exercise. In the KD groups, the expression of genes related to ketolysis was suppressed, and that of genes related to ketogenesis was increased. These results indicate that KD exposure and pairing a KD with exercise have differential impacts on energy substrate selection at gene expression levels in energy-consuming organs, the heart and skeletal muscle. SN - 1879-0739 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30527262/Short-term_and_long-term_ketogenic_diet_therapy_and_the_addition_of_exercise_have_differential_impacts_on_metabolic_gene_expression_in_the_mouse_energy-consuming_organs_heart_and_skeletal_muscle L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0271-5317(18)30367-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -