Developmental neurotoxicity of maneb: Notochord defects, mitochondrial dysfunction and hypoactivity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019; 170:227-237EE
Broad applications and exposure to the fungicide maneb can lead to toxicity in non-target organisms. Maneb is also associated with neurogenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). The objectives of this study were to determine the acute toxicity of maneb to zebrafish by measuring mitochondrial bioenergetics, locomotor activity, and the expression of genes related to the oxidative damage response, as well as those related to dopamine signaling due to its association with PD. Zebrafish embryos at 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) were exposed to either solvent control (0.1% DMSO, v/v), or one dose of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 µM maneb for 96 h. Maneb was moderately toxic to zebrafish embryos, and had a 96-h LC50 value of 4.29 μM (~ 1.14 mg/L). Maneb induced a dose-dependent increase in mortality, decreased hatching rate, and increased notochord deformity rate at both 1.0 and 10.0 µM after 72 and 96 h. Total body length was also significantly reduced with 1.0 µM maneb. A 50-60% decrease in mean basal oxygen consumption rate was also observed in embryos following a 24 hpf exposure to 10.0 µM maneb but oligomycin-induced ATP production and FCCP-induced maximum respiration remained unaffected. No change was detected in the expression levels of genes associated with oxidative stress (sod1 and sod2), nor those related to dopamine synthesis (th1), dopamine transporter (dat), dopamine receptors (drd1, drd2a, drd3, and drd4b). Thus, modifying the expression of these transcripts may not be a mechanism for maneb-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish. To assess the potential for neurotoxicity, a dark photokinesis assay was conducted in larvae following 7 d exposure to 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 μM maneb. Larvae exposed to 0.5 and 1.0 μM maneb showed signs related to hypoactivity, and this reduced activity is hypothesized to be associated with notochord defects as this deformity was prevalent at higher concentrations of maneb. Overall, these data demonstrate that maneb negatively affects embryonic development (i.e. notochord development), affects basal oxygen consumption rates of embryos, and induces hypoactivity in larval fish. This study improves understanding regarding the developmental neurotoxicity of the fungicide maneb to zebrafish.