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(Over)eating out at major UK restaurant chains: observational study of energy content of main meals.
BMJ 2018; 363:k4982BMJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To examine the energy content of main meals served in major UK restaurant chains and compare the energy content of meals in fast food and "full service" restaurant chains.

DESIGN

Observational study.

SETTING

Menu and nutritional information provided by major UK restaurant chains.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Mean energy content of meals, proportion of meals meeting public health recommendations for energy consumption (≤600 kcal), and proportion of meals with excessive energy content (≥1000 kcal).

RESULTS

Main meals from 27 restaurant chains (21 full service; 6 fast food) were sampled. The mean energy content of all eligible restaurant meals (13 396 in total) was 977 (95% confidence interval 973 to 983) kcal. The percentage of all meals that met public health recommendations for energy content was low (9%; n=1226) and smaller than the percentage of meals with an excessive energy content (47%; 6251). Compared with fast food restaurants, full service restaurants offered significantly more excessively calorific main meals, fewer main meals meeting public health recommendations, and on average 268 (103 to 433) kcal more in main meals.

CONCLUSIONS

The energy content of a large number of main meals in major UK restaurant chains is excessive, and only a minority meet public health recommendations. Although the poor nutritional quality of fast food meals has been well documented, the energy content of full service restaurant meals in the UK tends to be higher and is a cause for concern.

REGISTRATION

Study protocol and analysis strategy pre-registered on Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/w5h8q/).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute of Psychology, Health & Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK eric.robinson@liv.ac.uk.Institute of Psychology, Health & Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK.Institute of Psychology, Health & Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK.Institute of Psychology, Health & Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK.Institute of Psychology, Health & Society, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZA, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Observational Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30541906

Citation

Robinson, Eric, et al. "(Over)eating Out at Major UK Restaurant Chains: Observational Study of Energy Content of Main Meals." BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), vol. 363, 2018, pp. k4982.
Robinson E, Jones A, Whitelock V, et al. (Over)eating out at major UK restaurant chains: observational study of energy content of main meals. BMJ. 2018;363:k4982.
Robinson, E., Jones, A., Whitelock, V., Mead, B. R., & Haynes, A. (2018). (Over)eating out at major UK restaurant chains: observational study of energy content of main meals. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.), 363, pp. k4982. doi:10.1136/bmj.k4982.
Robinson E, et al. (Over)eating Out at Major UK Restaurant Chains: Observational Study of Energy Content of Main Meals. BMJ. 2018 12 12;363:k4982. PubMed PMID: 30541906.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - (Over)eating out at major UK restaurant chains: observational study of energy content of main meals. AU - Robinson,Eric, AU - Jones,Andrew, AU - Whitelock,Victoria, AU - Mead,Bethan R, AU - Haynes,Ashleigh, Y1 - 2018/12/12/ PY - 2018/12/14/entrez PY - 2018/12/14/pubmed PY - 2019/4/4/medline SP - k4982 EP - k4982 JF - BMJ (Clinical research ed.) JO - BMJ VL - 363 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To examine the energy content of main meals served in major UK restaurant chains and compare the energy content of meals in fast food and "full service" restaurant chains. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Menu and nutritional information provided by major UK restaurant chains. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean energy content of meals, proportion of meals meeting public health recommendations for energy consumption (≤600 kcal), and proportion of meals with excessive energy content (≥1000 kcal). RESULTS: Main meals from 27 restaurant chains (21 full service; 6 fast food) were sampled. The mean energy content of all eligible restaurant meals (13 396 in total) was 977 (95% confidence interval 973 to 983) kcal. The percentage of all meals that met public health recommendations for energy content was low (9%; n=1226) and smaller than the percentage of meals with an excessive energy content (47%; 6251). Compared with fast food restaurants, full service restaurants offered significantly more excessively calorific main meals, fewer main meals meeting public health recommendations, and on average 268 (103 to 433) kcal more in main meals. CONCLUSIONS: The energy content of a large number of main meals in major UK restaurant chains is excessive, and only a minority meet public health recommendations. Although the poor nutritional quality of fast food meals has been well documented, the energy content of full service restaurant meals in the UK tends to be higher and is a cause for concern. REGISTRATION: Study protocol and analysis strategy pre-registered on Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/w5h8q/). SN - 1756-1833 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30541906/_Over_eating_out_at_major_UK_restaurant_chains:_observational_study_of_energy_content_of_main_meals_ L2 - http://www.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=30541906 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -