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Predictors of lower-than-expected posttraumatic symptom severity in war veterans: The influence of personality, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility.
Behav Res Ther. 2019 02; 113:1-8.BR

Abstract

Resilience following traumatic events has been studied using numerous methodologies. One approach involves quantifying lower-than-expected levels of a negative outcome following trauma exposure. Resilience research has examined personality and coping-related factors. One malleable factor is psychological flexibility, or the context-dependent ability/willingness to contact the present moment, including emotional distress, in order to engage in valued actions. Among 254 war Veterans who participated in a longitudinal study, we operationalized resilience as lower-than-expected PTSD symptoms and PTSD-related functional impairment one-year following an initial post-deployment assessment based on lifetime exposure to childhood trauma, combat trauma, and sexual trauma during military service. We evaluated the contribution of personality factors, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility, measured using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, to PTSD-related resilience after accounting for lifetime and current PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity. In hierarchical regression analyses, neither specific personality factors nor self-reported resilience predicted PTSD-related resilience at follow-up after accounting for PTSD and depression symptoms. In the final step, psychological flexibility predicted unique variance and was the only significant predictor of PTSD-related resilience aside from baseline PTSD symptom severity. Findings indicate that psychological flexibility is a predictor of resilience that is distinct from psychiatric symptoms, personality, and self-reported resilience. Trauma survivors may benefit from interventions that bolster psychological flexibility.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Veterans Affairs VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans at Central Texas Veterans Healthcare System, Waco, TX, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College of Medicine, College Station, TX, USA; Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor Univeristy, Waco, TX, USA. Electronic address: Eric.Meyer2@va.gov.Department of Veterans Affairs VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans at Central Texas Veterans Healthcare System, Waco, TX, USA.Durham VA Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; VA Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, Durham, NC, USA; Department of Psychiatry, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.Department of Veterans Affairs VISN 17 Center of Excellence for Research on Returning War Veterans at Central Texas Veterans Healthcare System, Waco, TX, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College of Medicine, College Station, TX, USA.Texas A&M University, Department of Educational Psychology, College Station, TX, USA.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Texas A&M University Health Science Center, College of Medicine, College Station, TX, USA; Warriors Research Institute, Baylor Scott & White Health, Waco, TX, USA.The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30553859

Citation

Meyer, Eric C., et al. "Predictors of Lower-than-expected Posttraumatic Symptom Severity in War Veterans: the Influence of Personality, Self-reported Trait Resilience, and Psychological Flexibility." Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 113, 2019, pp. 1-8.
Meyer EC, Kotte A, Kimbrel NA, et al. Predictors of lower-than-expected posttraumatic symptom severity in war veterans: The influence of personality, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility. Behav Res Ther. 2019;113:1-8.
Meyer, E. C., Kotte, A., Kimbrel, N. A., DeBeer, B. B., Elliott, T. R., Gulliver, S. B., & Morissette, S. B. (2019). Predictors of lower-than-expected posttraumatic symptom severity in war veterans: The influence of personality, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 113, 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2018.12.005
Meyer EC, et al. Predictors of Lower-than-expected Posttraumatic Symptom Severity in War Veterans: the Influence of Personality, Self-reported Trait Resilience, and Psychological Flexibility. Behav Res Ther. 2019;113:1-8. PubMed PMID: 30553859.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Predictors of lower-than-expected posttraumatic symptom severity in war veterans: The influence of personality, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility. AU - Meyer,Eric C, AU - Kotte,Amelia, AU - Kimbrel,Nathan A, AU - DeBeer,Bryann B, AU - Elliott,Timothy R, AU - Gulliver,Suzy B, AU - Morissette,Sandra B, Y1 - 2018/12/08/ PY - 2017/05/01/received PY - 2018/11/21/revised PY - 2018/12/07/accepted PY - 2018/12/17/pubmed PY - 2018/12/17/medline PY - 2018/12/17/entrez KW - Personality KW - Posttraumatic stress disorder KW - Psychological flexibility KW - Resilience KW - Trauma KW - Veterans SP - 1 EP - 8 JF - Behaviour research and therapy JO - Behav Res Ther VL - 113 N2 - Resilience following traumatic events has been studied using numerous methodologies. One approach involves quantifying lower-than-expected levels of a negative outcome following trauma exposure. Resilience research has examined personality and coping-related factors. One malleable factor is psychological flexibility, or the context-dependent ability/willingness to contact the present moment, including emotional distress, in order to engage in valued actions. Among 254 war Veterans who participated in a longitudinal study, we operationalized resilience as lower-than-expected PTSD symptoms and PTSD-related functional impairment one-year following an initial post-deployment assessment based on lifetime exposure to childhood trauma, combat trauma, and sexual trauma during military service. We evaluated the contribution of personality factors, self-reported trait resilience, and psychological flexibility, measured using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, to PTSD-related resilience after accounting for lifetime and current PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity. In hierarchical regression analyses, neither specific personality factors nor self-reported resilience predicted PTSD-related resilience at follow-up after accounting for PTSD and depression symptoms. In the final step, psychological flexibility predicted unique variance and was the only significant predictor of PTSD-related resilience aside from baseline PTSD symptom severity. Findings indicate that psychological flexibility is a predictor of resilience that is distinct from psychiatric symptoms, personality, and self-reported resilience. Trauma survivors may benefit from interventions that bolster psychological flexibility. SN - 1873-622X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30553859/Predictors_of_lower_than_expected_posttraumatic_symptom_severity_in_war_veterans:_The_influence_of_personality_self_reported_trait_resilience_and_psychological_flexibility_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0005-7967(18)30201-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -