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Shifting characteristics of nonmedical prescription tranquilizer users in the United States, 2005-2014.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 02 01; 195:1-5.DA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Benzodiazepine overdose rates have increased in the US, largely from concomitant use of other drugs such as opioids. Studies are needed to examine trends in prescription tranquilizer (e.g., benzodiazepine) use-with a particular focus on use of other drugs such as opioids-to continue to inform prevention efforts.

METHODS

We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2005-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative probability sample. Trends in past-year nonmedical tranquilizer use and trends in demographic and other past-year substance use characteristics among nonmedical users were examined (N = 560,099).

RESULTS

Prevalence of nonmedical tranquilizer use remained stable from 2005/06 through 2013/14 at 2%. Prevalence of past-year heroin use and heroin use disorder both more than doubled among nonmedical tranquilizer users between 2005/06 and 2013/14 (Ps<.001). Nonmedical opioid use decreased between 2005/06 and 2013/14 (P < .001); however, opioid use disorder increased from 13.4% to 16.7% (P = .019). Prevalence doubled among those age >50 between 2005/06 and 2013/14 from 7.9% to 16.5% (P < .001), and nonmedical tranquilizer use among racial minorities also increased (Ps<.01). Prevalence of nonmedical use also increased among those with health insurance (P = .031), and this increase appeared to be driven by a 190.6% increase in nonmedical use among those with Medicare (from 2.6% to 7.4%; P = .002).

CONCLUSIONS

Characteristics of nonmedical tranquilizer users are shifting, and many shifts are related to past-year nonmedical prescription opioid use and heroin use. Prevention needs to be geared in particular towards older individuals and to those who use opioids nonmedically.

Authors+Show Affiliations

New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Population Health, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: joseph.palamar@nyulangone.org.New York University Langone Medical Center, Department of Population Health, New York, NY, USA; New York University School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Geriatric Medicine and Palliative Care, New York, NY, USA.Columbia University, Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30553910

Citation

Palamar, Joseph J., et al. "Shifting Characteristics of Nonmedical Prescription Tranquilizer Users in the United States, 2005-2014." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 195, 2019, pp. 1-5.
Palamar JJ, Han BH, Martins SS. Shifting characteristics of nonmedical prescription tranquilizer users in the United States, 2005-2014. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019;195:1-5.
Palamar, J. J., Han, B. H., & Martins, S. S. (2019). Shifting characteristics of nonmedical prescription tranquilizer users in the United States, 2005-2014. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 195, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.11.015
Palamar JJ, Han BH, Martins SS. Shifting Characteristics of Nonmedical Prescription Tranquilizer Users in the United States, 2005-2014. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2019 02 1;195:1-5. PubMed PMID: 30553910.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Shifting characteristics of nonmedical prescription tranquilizer users in the United States, 2005-2014. AU - Palamar,Joseph J, AU - Han,Benjamin H, AU - Martins,Silvia S, Y1 - 2018/12/08/ PY - 2018/07/20/received PY - 2018/11/10/revised PY - 2018/11/13/accepted PY - 2018/12/17/pubmed PY - 2019/6/27/medline PY - 2018/12/17/entrez KW - Benzodiazepine KW - Geriatric KW - Opioid KW - Tranquilizer SP - 1 EP - 5 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 195 N2 - BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine overdose rates have increased in the US, largely from concomitant use of other drugs such as opioids. Studies are needed to examine trends in prescription tranquilizer (e.g., benzodiazepine) use-with a particular focus on use of other drugs such as opioids-to continue to inform prevention efforts. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2005-2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, a repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative probability sample. Trends in past-year nonmedical tranquilizer use and trends in demographic and other past-year substance use characteristics among nonmedical users were examined (N = 560,099). RESULTS: Prevalence of nonmedical tranquilizer use remained stable from 2005/06 through 2013/14 at 2%. Prevalence of past-year heroin use and heroin use disorder both more than doubled among nonmedical tranquilizer users between 2005/06 and 2013/14 (Ps<.001). Nonmedical opioid use decreased between 2005/06 and 2013/14 (P < .001); however, opioid use disorder increased from 13.4% to 16.7% (P = .019). Prevalence doubled among those age >50 between 2005/06 and 2013/14 from 7.9% to 16.5% (P < .001), and nonmedical tranquilizer use among racial minorities also increased (Ps<.01). Prevalence of nonmedical use also increased among those with health insurance (P = .031), and this increase appeared to be driven by a 190.6% increase in nonmedical use among those with Medicare (from 2.6% to 7.4%; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of nonmedical tranquilizer users are shifting, and many shifts are related to past-year nonmedical prescription opioid use and heroin use. Prevention needs to be geared in particular towards older individuals and to those who use opioids nonmedically. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30553910/Shifting_characteristics_of_nonmedical_prescription_tranquilizer_users_in_the_United_States_2005_2014_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(18)30825-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -