Recombinant growth hormone therapy for cystic fibrosis in children and young adults.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 12 17; 12:CD008901.CD
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition causing disease most noticeably in the lungs, digestive tract and pancreas. People with CF often have malnutrition and growth delay. Adequate nutritional supplementation does not improve growth optimally and hence an anabolic agent, recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), has been proposed as a potential intervention. This is an update of a previously published review.
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of rhGH therapy in improving lung function, quality of life and clinical status of children and young adults with CF.
We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of latest search: 22 October 2018.We also searched ongoing trials registers in clinicaltrials.gov from the United States and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). Date of latest search: 05 March 2018.We conducted a search of relevant endocrine journals and proceedings of the Endocrinology Society meetings using Web of Science, Scopus and Proceedings First. Date of latest search: 04 March 2018.
Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of rhGH compared to either no treatment, or placebo, or each other at any dose (high-dose and low-dose) or route and for any duration, in children or young adults (aged up to 25 years) diagnosed with CF (by sweat test or genetic testing).
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE system.
We included eight trials (291 participants, aged between five and 23 years) in this revision of the review. Seven trials compared standard-dose rhGH (approximately 0.3 mg/kg/week) to no treatment and one three-arm trial (63 participants) compared placebo, standard-dose rhGH (0.3 mg/kg/week) and high-dose rhGH (0.5 mg/kg/week). Six trials lasted for one year and two trials for six months. We found that rhGH treatment may improve some of the pulmonary function outcomes but there was no difference between standard and high-dose levels (low-quality evidence, limited by inconsistency across the trials, small number of participants and short duration of therapy). The trials show evidence of improvement in the anthropometric parameters (height, weight and lean body mass) with rhGH therapy, again no differences between dose levels. We found improvement in height for all comparisons (very low- to low quality evidence), but improvements in weight and lean body mass were only reported for standard-dose rhGH versus no treatment (very low-quality evidence). There is some evidence indicating a change in the level of fasting blood glucose with rhGH therapy, however, it did not cross the clinical threshold for diagnosis of diabetes in the trials of short duration (low-quality evidence). There is low- to very low-quality evidence for improvement of pulmonary exacerbations with no further significant adverse effects, but this is limited by the short duration of trials and the small number of participants. One small trial provided inconsistent evidence on improvement in quality of life (very low-quality evidence). There is limited evidence from three trials in improvements in exercise capacity (low-quality evidence). None of the trials have systematically compared the expense of therapy on overall healthcare costs.