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Assessing negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Validity of the clinical assessment interview for negative symptoms in Singapore.
Schizophr Res 2019; 206:177-182SR

Abstract

This study aimed to examine the validity of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) in Singapore. 274 participants with schizophrenia were assessed on the CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and the Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Side Effects Scale (SES). Factor analyses were conducted and Cronbach's coefficient alpha was calculated. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations. The 2-factor model of the CAINS failed to fit our data. Exploratory factor analysis of a randomly selected split-half of the sample yielded four factors: motivation-pleasure (MAP) social, MAP vocational, MAP recreational and expression (EXP), accounting for 73.94% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining sample supported this factor structure. Cronbach's alpha for the CAINS was 0.770. Significant correlations were observed between the CAINS total and the SANS total and PANSS negative subscale scores. Good divergent validity was shown by insignificant correlations with PANSS positive subscale score and CDSS total score. The MAP social and recreational factor scores had moderate correlations with the SANS anhedonia-asociality subscale scores, whereas the MAP vocational factor had the highest correlation with the avolition-apathy subscale of the SANS. EXP factor score correlated strongly with the SANS affective flattening and alogia subscales scores. In conclusion, the CAINS has good psychometric properties and can be used by clinicians to assess negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in the local population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore. Electronic address: gurpreet_rekhi@imh.com.sg.Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore; North Region & Department of Psychosis, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30558979

Citation

Rekhi, Gurpreet, et al. "Assessing Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Validity of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms in Singapore." Schizophrenia Research, vol. 206, 2019, pp. 177-182.
Rekhi G, Ang MS, Yuen CKY, et al. Assessing negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Validity of the clinical assessment interview for negative symptoms in Singapore. Schizophr Res. 2019;206:177-182.
Rekhi, G., Ang, M. S., Yuen, C. K. Y., Ng, W. Y., & Lee, J. (2019). Assessing negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Validity of the clinical assessment interview for negative symptoms in Singapore. Schizophrenia Research, 206, pp. 177-182. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2018.11.029.
Rekhi G, et al. Assessing Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia: Validity of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms in Singapore. Schizophr Res. 2019;206:177-182. PubMed PMID: 30558979.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Assessing negative symptoms in schizophrenia: Validity of the clinical assessment interview for negative symptoms in Singapore. AU - Rekhi,Gurpreet, AU - Ang,Mei San, AU - Yuen,Caryn Kai Yan, AU - Ng,Wai Yee, AU - Lee,Jimmy, Y1 - 2018/12/14/ PY - 2018/03/16/received PY - 2018/07/25/revised PY - 2018/11/23/accepted PY - 2018/12/19/pubmed PY - 2018/12/19/medline PY - 2018/12/19/entrez KW - Clinical assessment interview for negative symptoms KW - Factor structure KW - Schizophrenia KW - Validity SP - 177 EP - 182 JF - Schizophrenia research JO - Schizophr. Res. VL - 206 N2 - This study aimed to examine the validity of the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS) in Singapore. 274 participants with schizophrenia were assessed on the CAINS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) and the Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Side Effects Scale (SES). Factor analyses were conducted and Cronbach's coefficient alpha was calculated. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations. The 2-factor model of the CAINS failed to fit our data. Exploratory factor analysis of a randomly selected split-half of the sample yielded four factors: motivation-pleasure (MAP) social, MAP vocational, MAP recreational and expression (EXP), accounting for 73.94% of the total variance. Confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining sample supported this factor structure. Cronbach's alpha for the CAINS was 0.770. Significant correlations were observed between the CAINS total and the SANS total and PANSS negative subscale scores. Good divergent validity was shown by insignificant correlations with PANSS positive subscale score and CDSS total score. The MAP social and recreational factor scores had moderate correlations with the SANS anhedonia-asociality subscale scores, whereas the MAP vocational factor had the highest correlation with the avolition-apathy subscale of the SANS. EXP factor score correlated strongly with the SANS affective flattening and alogia subscales scores. In conclusion, the CAINS has good psychometric properties and can be used by clinicians to assess negative symptoms in individuals with schizophrenia in the local population. SN - 1573-2509 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30558979/Assessing_negative_symptoms_in_schizophrenia:_Validity_of_the_clinical_assessment_interview_for_negative_symptoms_in_Singapore_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0920-9964(18)30681-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -