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Occurrence of tissue cyst forming coccidia in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) rescued on the coast of Brazil.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209007.Plos

Abstract

The main motivation for this study was to determine the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii, a cosmopolitan widespread zoonotic parasite distribution that can infect a wide variety of mammals and birds, in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Brazil. In recent decades there has been a significant increase in the number of penguins originating from Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia, where these birds are born, that arrive on the Brazilian coast, where many of them are stranded and rescued. Tissue samples were collected from 330 individuals surveyed from 2012-2015 at the Institute for Marine Animal Research and Rehabilitation (IPRAM) located in Cariacica, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Serum were collected from 145 animals surveyed in 2015 for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies using the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT ≥20) and 18 birds were positive, with titers of 20 (7 birds), 40 (9 birds) and 80 (2 birds). Mouse bioassay for the isolation of T. gondii was performed using tissues from 54 penguins that were also surveyed in 2015, but no isolates were obtained. DNA from tissue samples of 330 individuals was PCR amplified and sequenced to detect tissue cyst forming coccidians by using pan sarcocystids-directed primers (based on 18S rDNA). These samples were from animals surveyed in 2015 and from frozen stocked tissues from animals surveyed in the years 2012 and 2013. The positives were PCR amplified and sequenced with genus Sarcocystis-specific primers (based on internal transcribed spacer 1, RNA polymerase beta subunit coding gene, and cytochrome B coding gene) and with Sarcocystis falcatula/Sarcocystis neurona- specific primers (based on surface antigens SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4). Sixteen (3.0%) of pectoral muscle samples were positive by all the seven molecular markers and all the samples were identical to each other. Organisms close related to Sarcocystis falcatula were confirmed in all cases. This is the first report on molecular detection of infection by S. falcatula-related organisms and the first report of seropositivity for T. gondii in free-living Magellanic penguins in Brazil. Felids and didephid opossums are definitive hosts of T. gondii and S. falcatula, respectively. Where the penguins acquire the infective forms of the parasites shed by the terrestrial mammals remains to be elucidated.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo-USP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo-USP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.Instituto de Pesquisa e Reabilitação de Animais Marinhos-IPRAM, Cariacica, ES, Brasil.Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo-USP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo-USP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo-USP, São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Mestrado em Medicina e Bem estar animal, Universidade Santo Amaro, Av. Prof. Eneas de Siqueira Neto, São Paulo, Brazil.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30562391

Citation

Acosta, Igor Cunha Lima, et al. "Occurrence of Tissue Cyst Forming Coccidia in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus Magellanicus) Rescued On the Coast of Brazil." PloS One, vol. 13, no. 12, 2018, pp. e0209007.
Acosta ICL, Soares RM, Mayorga LFSP, et al. Occurrence of tissue cyst forming coccidia in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) rescued on the coast of Brazil. PLoS One. 2018;13(12):e0209007.
Acosta, I. C. L., Soares, R. M., Mayorga, L. F. S. P., Alves, B. F., Soares, H. S., & Gennari, S. M. (2018). Occurrence of tissue cyst forming coccidia in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) rescued on the coast of Brazil. PloS One, 13(12), e0209007. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0209007
Acosta ICL, et al. Occurrence of Tissue Cyst Forming Coccidia in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus Magellanicus) Rescued On the Coast of Brazil. PLoS One. 2018;13(12):e0209007. PubMed PMID: 30562391.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Occurrence of tissue cyst forming coccidia in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) rescued on the coast of Brazil. AU - Acosta,Igor Cunha Lima, AU - Soares,Rodrigo Martins, AU - Mayorga,Luis Felipe Silva Pereira, AU - Alves,Bruna Farias, AU - Soares,Herbert Sousa, AU - Gennari,Solange Maria, Y1 - 2018/12/18/ PY - 2018/05/25/received PY - 2018/11/27/accepted PY - 2018/12/19/entrez PY - 2018/12/19/pubmed PY - 2019/5/22/medline SP - e0209007 EP - e0209007 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 13 IS - 12 N2 - The main motivation for this study was to determine the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii, a cosmopolitan widespread zoonotic parasite distribution that can infect a wide variety of mammals and birds, in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Brazil. In recent decades there has been a significant increase in the number of penguins originating from Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia, where these birds are born, that arrive on the Brazilian coast, where many of them are stranded and rescued. Tissue samples were collected from 330 individuals surveyed from 2012-2015 at the Institute for Marine Animal Research and Rehabilitation (IPRAM) located in Cariacica, state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Serum were collected from 145 animals surveyed in 2015 for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies using the Modified Agglutination Test (MAT ≥20) and 18 birds were positive, with titers of 20 (7 birds), 40 (9 birds) and 80 (2 birds). Mouse bioassay for the isolation of T. gondii was performed using tissues from 54 penguins that were also surveyed in 2015, but no isolates were obtained. DNA from tissue samples of 330 individuals was PCR amplified and sequenced to detect tissue cyst forming coccidians by using pan sarcocystids-directed primers (based on 18S rDNA). These samples were from animals surveyed in 2015 and from frozen stocked tissues from animals surveyed in the years 2012 and 2013. The positives were PCR amplified and sequenced with genus Sarcocystis-specific primers (based on internal transcribed spacer 1, RNA polymerase beta subunit coding gene, and cytochrome B coding gene) and with Sarcocystis falcatula/Sarcocystis neurona- specific primers (based on surface antigens SAG2, SAG3 and SAG4). Sixteen (3.0%) of pectoral muscle samples were positive by all the seven molecular markers and all the samples were identical to each other. Organisms close related to Sarcocystis falcatula were confirmed in all cases. This is the first report on molecular detection of infection by S. falcatula-related organisms and the first report of seropositivity for T. gondii in free-living Magellanic penguins in Brazil. Felids and didephid opossums are definitive hosts of T. gondii and S. falcatula, respectively. Where the penguins acquire the infective forms of the parasites shed by the terrestrial mammals remains to be elucidated. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30562391/Occurrence_of_tissue_cyst_forming_coccidia_in_Magellanic_penguins__Spheniscus_magellanicus__rescued_on_the_coast_of_Brazil_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -