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Genetic Evidence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) and Widespread Seroprevalence among Camels in Kenya.
Virol Sin. 2018 Dec; 33(6):484-492.VS

Abstract

We describe the first genome isolation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Kenya. This fatal zoonotic pathogen was first described in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Epidemiological and molecular evidence revealed zoonotic transmission from camels to humans and between humans. Currently, MERS-CoV is classified by the WHO as having high pandemic potential requiring greater surveillance. Previous studies of MERS-CoV in Kenya mainly focused on site-specific and archived camel and human serum samples for antibodies. We conducted active nationwide cross-sectional surveillance of camels and humans in Kenya, targeting both nasal swabs and plasma samples from 1,163 camels and 486 humans collected from January 2016 to June 2018. A total of 792 camel plasma samples were positive by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased with age, and the highest prevalence was observed in adult camels (82.37%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.50-84.91). More female camels were significantly seropositive (74.28%, 95% CI 71.14-77.19) than male camels (P < 0.001) (53.74%, 95% CI 48.48-58.90). Only 11 camel nasal swabs were positive for MERS-CoV by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences showed that Kenyan MERS-CoV clustered within sub-clade C2, which is associated with the African clade, but did not contain signature deletions of orf4b in African viruses. None of the human plasma screened contained neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV. This study confirms the geographically widespread occurrence of MERS-CoV in Kenyan camels. Further one-health surveillance approaches in camels, wildlife, and human populations are needed.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Biotechnology Research, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, 62000-00200, Kenya.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.College of Biology, Hunan University, Changsha, 410006, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, 30197-00100, Kenya.Veterinary Services Department, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, 40241-00100, Kenya.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.Veterinary Research Institute, Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization, Nairobi, 57811-00200, Kenya.Veterinary Research Institute, Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization, Nairobi, 57811-00200, Kenya.Veterinary Services Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, 169857, Singapore.Veterinary Services Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, 169857, Singapore.Directorate of Veterinary Services, State Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Fisheries and Irrigation, Nairobi, 34188-00100, Kenya.Veterinary Research Institute, Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization, Nairobi, 57811-00200, Kenya.Veterinary Services Department, Kenya Wildlife Service, Nairobi, 40241-00100, Kenya.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.Directorate of Veterinary Services, State Department of Livestock, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock Fisheries and Irrigation, Nairobi, 34188-00100, Kenya. Kenya Camel Association, Nairobi, 30095-00100, Kenya.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China.Department of Zoology, National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi, 40658-00100, Kenya. bagwanda@museums.or.ke.CAS Key Laboratory for Special Pathogens and Biosafety, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071, China. zlshi@wh.iov.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30570714

Citation

Ommeh, Sheila, et al. "Genetic Evidence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) and Widespread Seroprevalence Among Camels in Kenya." Virologica Sinica, vol. 33, no. 6, 2018, pp. 484-492.
Ommeh S, Zhang W, Zohaib A, et al. Genetic Evidence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) and Widespread Seroprevalence among Camels in Kenya. Virol Sin. 2018;33(6):484-492.
Ommeh, S., Zhang, W., Zohaib, A., Chen, J., Zhang, H., Hu, B., Ge, X. Y., Yang, X. L., Masika, M., Obanda, V., Luo, Y., Li, S., Waruhiu, C., Li, B., Zhu, Y., Ouma, D., Odendo, V., Wang, L. F., Anderson, D. E., ... Shi, Z. L. (2018). Genetic Evidence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) and Widespread Seroprevalence among Camels in Kenya. Virologica Sinica, 33(6), 484-492. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12250-018-0076-4
Ommeh S, et al. Genetic Evidence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) and Widespread Seroprevalence Among Camels in Kenya. Virol Sin. 2018;33(6):484-492. PubMed PMID: 30570714.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Genetic Evidence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-Cov) and Widespread Seroprevalence among Camels in Kenya. AU - Ommeh,Sheila, AU - Zhang,Wei, AU - Zohaib,Ali, AU - Chen,Jing, AU - Zhang,Huajun, AU - Hu,Ben, AU - Ge,Xing-Yi, AU - Yang,Xing-Lou, AU - Masika,Moses, AU - Obanda,Vincent, AU - Luo,Yun, AU - Li,Shan, AU - Waruhiu,Cecilia, AU - Li,Bei, AU - Zhu,Yan, AU - Ouma,Desterio, AU - Odendo,Vincent, AU - Wang,Lin-Fa, AU - Anderson,Danielle E, AU - Lichoti,Jacqueline, AU - Mungube,Erick, AU - Gakuya,Francis, AU - Zhou,Peng, AU - Ngeiywa,Kisa-Juma, AU - Yan,Bing, AU - Agwanda,Bernard, AU - Shi,Zheng-Li, Y1 - 2018/12/20/ PY - 2018/10/11/received PY - 2018/11/27/accepted PY - 2018/12/21/pubmed PY - 2019/3/7/medline PY - 2018/12/21/entrez KW - Kenya KW - Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) KW - One-health KW - Public health KW - Zoonosis SP - 484 EP - 492 JF - Virologica Sinica JO - Virol Sin VL - 33 IS - 6 N2 - We describe the first genome isolation of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Kenya. This fatal zoonotic pathogen was first described in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 2012. Epidemiological and molecular evidence revealed zoonotic transmission from camels to humans and between humans. Currently, MERS-CoV is classified by the WHO as having high pandemic potential requiring greater surveillance. Previous studies of MERS-CoV in Kenya mainly focused on site-specific and archived camel and human serum samples for antibodies. We conducted active nationwide cross-sectional surveillance of camels and humans in Kenya, targeting both nasal swabs and plasma samples from 1,163 camels and 486 humans collected from January 2016 to June 2018. A total of 792 camel plasma samples were positive by ELISA. Seroprevalence increased with age, and the highest prevalence was observed in adult camels (82.37%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 79.50-84.91). More female camels were significantly seropositive (74.28%, 95% CI 71.14-77.19) than male camels (P < 0.001) (53.74%, 95% CI 48.48-58.90). Only 11 camel nasal swabs were positive for MERS-CoV by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of whole genome sequences showed that Kenyan MERS-CoV clustered within sub-clade C2, which is associated with the African clade, but did not contain signature deletions of orf4b in African viruses. None of the human plasma screened contained neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV. This study confirms the geographically widespread occurrence of MERS-CoV in Kenyan camels. Further one-health surveillance approaches in camels, wildlife, and human populations are needed. SN - 1995-820X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30570714/Genetic_Evidence_of_Middle_East_Respiratory_Syndrome_Coronavirus__MERS_Cov__and_Widespread_Seroprevalence_among_Camels_in_Kenya_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12250-018-0076-4 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -