Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 1,8-naphthyridine glucosamine conjugates as antimicrobial agents.Drug Dev Res. 2019 02; 80(1):179-186.DD
In the quest for discovering potent antimicrobial agents with lower toxicity, we envisioned the design and synthesis of nalidixic acid-D-(+)-glucosamine conjugates. The novel compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, Gram negative bacteria and fungi. Cytotoxicity using MTT assay over L6 skeletal myoblast cell line, ATCC CRL-1458 was carried out. In vitro antimicrobial assay revealed that 1-ethyl-7-methyl-4-oxo-N-(1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose-2-yl)-[1,8]-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide (5) and 1-ethyl-7-methyl-4-oxo-N-(2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose-2-yl)-[1,8]-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide(6) possess growth inhibitory activity against resistant Escherichia coli NCTC, 11954 (MIC 0.1589 mM) and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC, 33591 (MIC 0.1589 mM). Compound (5) was more active against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 (MIC 0.1113 mM) in comparison with the reference nalidixic acid (MIC 1.0765 mM). Interestingly, compound (6) had potential antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC <0.0099 mM). Remarkably, the tested compounds had low cytotoxic effect. This study indicated that glucosamine moiety inclusion into the chemical structure of the marketed nalidixic acid enhances antimicrobial activity and safety.