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Toxicity of phthalate esters to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and the soil microbial community under different soil conditions.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0208111.Plos

Abstract

Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally used plasticizers and typical endocrine disruptors that can readily accumulate in agricultural products and represent a substantial risk to human health via the food chain. The range of soil properties has an important influence on the expression of PAE toxicity, and the mechanisms by which soil physical and chemical properties affect the expression of toxicity of target PAEs to plants and microorganisms requires further investigation. Important soil factors affecting the eco-toxicological effects of two typical PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a spiked soil were investigated in the present study. Soil at various pH values was spiked with three PAE concentrations (1, 5 and 20 mg DnBP or DEHP kg-1 soil), organic matter contents and water holding contents to simulate the greenhouse soil environment for 30 days. Their influence on the biomass, photosynthetic pigment contents, various physiological changes and soil microbial communities was determined as endpoints. The toxicity to lettuce of DnBP was higher than that of DEHP in the soil and soil pH was the most important factor affecting their single toxicity, followed by soil organic matter content and soil moisture content in agreement with the Biolog test results. Under different soil conditions total protein, total soluble sugar and free amino acid contents were positively correlated with concentrations of the target PAEs, but leaf area, biomass, •O2- activity, vitamin C content and soil microbial diversity indices showed the opposite trend. Chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents were more inhibited by DnBP together with impacts on indices of soil microbial diversity. The results suggest that soil conditions in greenhouses directly explain the patterns of pollutant toxicity displayed and impact the quantity, quality and food safety of vegetables produced using highly intensive production systems.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Key Laboratory of Original Agro-Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control, Ministry of Agriculture / Tianjin Key Laboratory of Agro-environment and Safe-product, Tianjin, China. Institute of Hanjiang, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, China. Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, China.Shanghai Research Institute of Chemical Industry, Shanghai, China.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, China.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30571793

Citation

Ma, Tingting, et al. "Toxicity of Phthalate Esters to Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) and the Soil Microbial Community Under Different Soil Conditions." PloS One, vol. 13, no. 12, 2018, pp. e0208111.
Ma T, Zhou W, Chen L, et al. Toxicity of phthalate esters to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and the soil microbial community under different soil conditions. PLoS One. 2018;13(12):e0208111.
Ma, T., Zhou, W., Chen, L., Wu, L., Christie, P., & Liu, W. (2018). Toxicity of phthalate esters to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and the soil microbial community under different soil conditions. PloS One, 13(12), e0208111. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208111
Ma T, et al. Toxicity of Phthalate Esters to Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa) and the Soil Microbial Community Under Different Soil Conditions. PLoS One. 2018;13(12):e0208111. PubMed PMID: 30571793.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Toxicity of phthalate esters to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and the soil microbial community under different soil conditions. AU - Ma,Tingting, AU - Zhou,Wei, AU - Chen,Like, AU - Wu,Longhua, AU - Christie,Peter, AU - Liu,Wuxing, Y1 - 2018/12/20/ PY - 2018/08/15/received PY - 2018/11/12/accepted PY - 2018/12/21/entrez PY - 2018/12/21/pubmed PY - 2019/5/23/medline SP - e0208111 EP - e0208111 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS One VL - 13 IS - 12 N2 - Phthalate esters (PAEs) are globally used plasticizers and typical endocrine disruptors that can readily accumulate in agricultural products and represent a substantial risk to human health via the food chain. The range of soil properties has an important influence on the expression of PAE toxicity, and the mechanisms by which soil physical and chemical properties affect the expression of toxicity of target PAEs to plants and microorganisms requires further investigation. Important soil factors affecting the eco-toxicological effects of two typical PAEs, di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), on lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in a spiked soil were investigated in the present study. Soil at various pH values was spiked with three PAE concentrations (1, 5 and 20 mg DnBP or DEHP kg-1 soil), organic matter contents and water holding contents to simulate the greenhouse soil environment for 30 days. Their influence on the biomass, photosynthetic pigment contents, various physiological changes and soil microbial communities was determined as endpoints. The toxicity to lettuce of DnBP was higher than that of DEHP in the soil and soil pH was the most important factor affecting their single toxicity, followed by soil organic matter content and soil moisture content in agreement with the Biolog test results. Under different soil conditions total protein, total soluble sugar and free amino acid contents were positively correlated with concentrations of the target PAEs, but leaf area, biomass, •O2- activity, vitamin C content and soil microbial diversity indices showed the opposite trend. Chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents were more inhibited by DnBP together with impacts on indices of soil microbial diversity. The results suggest that soil conditions in greenhouses directly explain the patterns of pollutant toxicity displayed and impact the quantity, quality and food safety of vegetables produced using highly intensive production systems. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30571793/Toxicity_of_phthalate_esters_to_lettuce__Lactuca_sativa__and_the_soil_microbial_community_under_different_soil_conditions_ L2 - https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0208111 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -