A Retrospective Study of Patients Undergoing Radical Cystectomy and Receiving Peri-Operative Naloxegol or Alvimopan: Comparison of Length of Stay.J Surg (N Y N Y) 2018; 6(5):129-134JS
Alvimopan is a μ-opioid receptor antagonist used in the post-operative period to decrease rates of post-operative ileus (POI) following radical cystectomy (RC) and thereby shorten length of stay (LOS). Naloxegol is a much less expensive drug of the same class that has yet to be studied for prevention of POI in the peri-operative period. The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the differences in LOS and development of POI in patients post-RC who take alvimopan versus those who take naloxegol, with the hope that drug efficacy can be evaluated against the significant difference in cost burden between the two drugs. The study population included all adult patients between 18-89 years of age with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy with urostomy at University of Colorado Hospital. Those patients who received usual post-operative care as well as either alvimopan or naloxegol between September 2011 and December 2017 were selected for analysis. Patients who did not take either medication or were switched from one drug to the other were excluded from the study. A zero-truncated binomial regression analysis was used to analyze differences in length of stay in patients who received alvimopan versus those who received naloxegol. Additionally, the incidence of post-operative ileus was compared between treatment groups. 130 patients who underwent RC and received either alvimopan or naloxegol were included in the study: 75 (58%) received alvimopan and 55 (42%) received naloxegol. Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups. There was no significant difference in the length of stay between patients who received alvimopan and patients who received naloxegol after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, length of surgical time, or stage of disease (p = 0.41). There was no significant between the two drugs for development of POI (p = 0.85). Development of POI was significantly associated with a longer LOS (p = 0.007). The analysis showed that naloxegol was comparable to alvimopan when it came to length of hospital stay following RC. Therefore, naloxegol may be offered as a less expensive, effective alternative to alvimopan.