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Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 12:CD010187CD

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Approximately 800 million women and children have anaemia, a condition thought to cause almost 9% of the global burden of years lived with disability. Around half this burden could be amenable to interventions that involve the provision of iron. Maize (corn) is one of the world's most important cereal grains and is cultivated across most of the globe. Several programmes around the world have fortified maize flour and other maize-derived foodstuffs with iron and other vitamins and minerals to combat anaemia and iron deficiency.

OBJECTIVES

To assess the effects of iron fortification of maize flour, corn meal and fortified maize flour products for anaemia and iron status in the general population.

SEARCH METHODS

We searched the following international and regional sources in December 2017 and January 2018: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; MEDLINE (R) In Process; Embase; Web of Science (both the Social Science Citation Index and the Science Citation Index); CINAHL Ebsco; POPLINE; AGRICOLA (agricola.nal.usda.gov); BIOSIS (ISI); Bibliomap and TRoPHI; IBECS; Scielo; Global Index Medicus - AFRO (includes African Index Medicus); EMRO (includes Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region); LILACS; PAHO (Pan American Health Library); WHOLIS (WHO Library); WPRO (includes Western Pacific Region Index Medicus); IMSEAR, Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region; IndMED, Indian medical journals; and the Native Health Research Database. We searched clinicaltrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for any ongoing or planned studies on 17 January 2018 and contacted authors of such studies to obtain further information or eligible data if available.For assistance in identifying ongoing or unpublished studies, we also contacted relevant international organisations and agencies working in food fortification on 9 August 2016.

SELECTION CRITERIA

We included cluster- or individually randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Interventions included (central/industrial) fortification of maize flour or corn meal with iron alone or with other vitamins and minerals and provided to individuals over 2 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women) from any country.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data from included studies and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Trial designs with a comparison group were included to assess the effects of interventions. Trial designs without a control or comparison group (uncontrolled before-and-after studies) were included for completeness but were not considered in assessments of the overall effectiveness of interventions or used to draw conclusions regarding the effects of interventions in the review.

MAIN RESULTS

Our search yielded 4529 records. After initial screening of titles and abstracts, we reviewed the full text of 75 studies (80 records). We included 5 studies and excluded 70. All the included studies assessed the effects of providing maize products fortified with iron plus other vitamins and minerals versus unfortified maize flour. No studies compared this intervention to no intervention or looked at the relative effect of flour and products fortified with iron alone (without other vitamins and minerals). Three were randomised trials involving 2610 participants, and two were uncontrolled before-and-after studies involving 849 participants.Only three studies contributed data for the meta-analysis and included children aged 2 to 11.9 years and women. Compared to unfortified maize flour, it is uncertain whether fortifying maize flour or corn meal with iron and other vitamins and minerals has any effect on anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 1.40; 2 studies; 1027 participants; very low-certainty evidence), or on the risk of iron deficiency (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.15; 2 studies; 1102 participants; very low-certainty evidence), haemoglobin concentration (mean difference (MD) 1.25 g/L, 95% CI -2.36 to 4.86 g/L; 3 studies; 1144 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or ferritin concentrations (MD 0.48 µg/L, 95% CI -0.37 to 1.33 µg/L; 1 study; 584 participants; very low-certainty evidence).None of the studies reported on any adverse effects. We judged the certainty of the evidence to be very low based on GRADE, so we are uncertain whether the results reflect the true effect of the intervention. We downgraded evidence due to high risk of selection bias and unclear risk of performance bias in one of two included studies, high heterogeneity and wide CIs crossing the line of no effect for anaemia prevalence and haemoglobin concentration.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS

It is uncertain whether fortifying maize flour with iron and other vitamins and minerals reduces the risk of anaemia or iron deficiency in children aged over 2 years or in adults. Moreover, the evidence is too uncertain to conclude whether iron-fortified maize flour, corn meal or fortified maize flour products have any effect on reducing the risk of anaemia or on improving haemoglobin concentration in the population.We are uncertain whether fortification of maize flour with iron reduces anaemia among the general population, as the certainty of the evidence is very low. No studies reported on any adverse effects.Public organisations funded three of the five included studies, while the private sector gave grants to universities to perform the other two. The presence of industry funding for some of these trials did not appear to positively influence results from these studies.The reduced number of studies, including only two age groups (children and women of reproductive age), as well as the limited number of comparisons (only one out of the four planned) constitute the main limitations of this review.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Evidence and Programme Guidance, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 1211.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30577080

Citation

Garcia-Casal, Maria N., et al. "Fortification of Maize Flour With Iron for Controlling Anaemia and Iron Deficiency in Populations." The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 12, 2018, p. CD010187.
Garcia-Casal MN, Peña-Rosas JP, De-Regil LM, et al. Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;12:CD010187.
Garcia-Casal, M. N., Peña-Rosas, J. P., De-Regil, L. M., Gwirtz, J. A., & Pasricha, S. R. (2018). Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12, p. CD010187. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010187.pub2.
Garcia-Casal MN, et al. Fortification of Maize Flour With Iron for Controlling Anaemia and Iron Deficiency in Populations. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 12 22;12:CD010187. PubMed PMID: 30577080.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fortification of maize flour with iron for controlling anaemia and iron deficiency in populations. AU - Garcia-Casal,Maria N, AU - Peña-Rosas,Juan Pablo, AU - De-Regil,Luz Maria, AU - Gwirtz,Jeffrey A, AU - Pasricha,Sant-Rayn, Y1 - 2018/12/22/ PY - 2019/12/22/pmc-release PY - 2018/12/24/pubmed PY - 2019/3/28/medline PY - 2018/12/22/entrez SP - CD010187 EP - CD010187 JF - The Cochrane database of systematic reviews JO - Cochrane Database Syst Rev VL - 12 N2 - BACKGROUND: Approximately 800 million women and children have anaemia, a condition thought to cause almost 9% of the global burden of years lived with disability. Around half this burden could be amenable to interventions that involve the provision of iron. Maize (corn) is one of the world's most important cereal grains and is cultivated across most of the globe. Several programmes around the world have fortified maize flour and other maize-derived foodstuffs with iron and other vitamins and minerals to combat anaemia and iron deficiency. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of iron fortification of maize flour, corn meal and fortified maize flour products for anaemia and iron status in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following international and regional sources in December 2017 and January 2018: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; MEDLINE (R) In Process; Embase; Web of Science (both the Social Science Citation Index and the Science Citation Index); CINAHL Ebsco; POPLINE; AGRICOLA (agricola.nal.usda.gov); BIOSIS (ISI); Bibliomap and TRoPHI; IBECS; Scielo; Global Index Medicus - AFRO (includes African Index Medicus); EMRO (includes Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region); LILACS; PAHO (Pan American Health Library); WHOLIS (WHO Library); WPRO (includes Western Pacific Region Index Medicus); IMSEAR, Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region; IndMED, Indian medical journals; and the Native Health Research Database. We searched clinicaltrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) for any ongoing or planned studies on 17 January 2018 and contacted authors of such studies to obtain further information or eligible data if available.For assistance in identifying ongoing or unpublished studies, we also contacted relevant international organisations and agencies working in food fortification on 9 August 2016. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cluster- or individually randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Interventions included (central/industrial) fortification of maize flour or corn meal with iron alone or with other vitamins and minerals and provided to individuals over 2 years of age (including pregnant and lactating women) from any country. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data from included studies and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Trial designs with a comparison group were included to assess the effects of interventions. Trial designs without a control or comparison group (uncontrolled before-and-after studies) were included for completeness but were not considered in assessments of the overall effectiveness of interventions or used to draw conclusions regarding the effects of interventions in the review. MAIN RESULTS: Our search yielded 4529 records. After initial screening of titles and abstracts, we reviewed the full text of 75 studies (80 records). We included 5 studies and excluded 70. All the included studies assessed the effects of providing maize products fortified with iron plus other vitamins and minerals versus unfortified maize flour. No studies compared this intervention to no intervention or looked at the relative effect of flour and products fortified with iron alone (without other vitamins and minerals). Three were randomised trials involving 2610 participants, and two were uncontrolled before-and-after studies involving 849 participants.Only three studies contributed data for the meta-analysis and included children aged 2 to 11.9 years and women. Compared to unfortified maize flour, it is uncertain whether fortifying maize flour or corn meal with iron and other vitamins and minerals has any effect on anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.58 to 1.40; 2 studies; 1027 participants; very low-certainty evidence), or on the risk of iron deficiency (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.49 to 1.15; 2 studies; 1102 participants; very low-certainty evidence), haemoglobin concentration (mean difference (MD) 1.25 g/L, 95% CI -2.36 to 4.86 g/L; 3 studies; 1144 participants; very low-certainty evidence) or ferritin concentrations (MD 0.48 µg/L, 95% CI -0.37 to 1.33 µg/L; 1 study; 584 participants; very low-certainty evidence).None of the studies reported on any adverse effects. We judged the certainty of the evidence to be very low based on GRADE, so we are uncertain whether the results reflect the true effect of the intervention. We downgraded evidence due to high risk of selection bias and unclear risk of performance bias in one of two included studies, high heterogeneity and wide CIs crossing the line of no effect for anaemia prevalence and haemoglobin concentration. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: It is uncertain whether fortifying maize flour with iron and other vitamins and minerals reduces the risk of anaemia or iron deficiency in children aged over 2 years or in adults. Moreover, the evidence is too uncertain to conclude whether iron-fortified maize flour, corn meal or fortified maize flour products have any effect on reducing the risk of anaemia or on improving haemoglobin concentration in the population.We are uncertain whether fortification of maize flour with iron reduces anaemia among the general population, as the certainty of the evidence is very low. No studies reported on any adverse effects.Public organisations funded three of the five included studies, while the private sector gave grants to universities to perform the other two. The presence of industry funding for some of these trials did not appear to positively influence results from these studies.The reduced number of studies, including only two age groups (children and women of reproductive age), as well as the limited number of comparisons (only one out of the four planned) constitute the main limitations of this review. SN - 1469-493X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30577080/Fortification_of_maize_flour_with_iron_for_controlling_anaemia_and_iron_deficiency_in_populations_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010187.pub2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -