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Production, milk fatty acid profile, and nutrient utilization in grazing dairy cows supplemented with ground flaxseed.
J Dairy Sci. 2019 Feb; 102(2):1294-1311.JD

Abstract

Flaxseed has been extensively used as a supplement for dairy cows because of its high concentrations of energy and the n-3 fatty acid (FA) cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3. However, limited information is available regarding the effect of ground flaxseed on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, and nutrient utilization in grazing dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 111 ± 49 d in milk in the beginning of the study were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effects of supplementing herbage (i.e., grazed forage) with ground corn-soybean meal mix (control diet = CTRL) or ground flaxseed (flaxseed diet = FLX) on animal production, milk FA, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility. The study was conducted from June to September 2013, with data and sample collection taking place on wk 4, 8, 12, and 16. Cows were fed a diet formulated to yield a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio consisting of (dry matter basis): 40% cool-season perennial herbage, 50% partial total mixed ration, and 10% of ground corn-soybean meal mix or 10% ground flaxseed. However, estimated herbage DMI averaged 5.59 kg/d or 34% of the total DMI. Significant treatment by week interactions were observed for milk and blood urea N, and several milk FA (e.g., trans-10 18:1). No significant differences between treatments were observed for herbage and total DMI, milk yield, feed efficiency, concentrations and yields of milk components, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Total-tract digestibility of organic matter decreased, whereas that of neutral detergent fiber increased with feeding FLX versus CTRL. No treatment effects were observed for ruminal concentrations of total volatile FA and NH3-N, and ruminal proportions of acetate and propionate. Ruminal butyrate tended to decrease, and the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased in the FLX diet. Most saturated and unsaturated FA in milk fat were changed. Specifically, milk proportion of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3, Σn-3 FA, and Σ18C FA increased, whereas that of cis-9,cis-12 18:2, Σn-6 FA, Σ odd-chain FA, Σ<16C FA, and Σ16C FA decreased with feeding FLX versus the CTRL diet. In conclusion, feeding FLX did not change yields of milk and milk components, but increased milk n-3 FA. Therefore, costs and industry adoption of premiums for n-3-enriched milk will determine the adoption of ground flaxseed in pasture-based dairy farms.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham 03824.Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, USDA-Agricultural Research Service, University Park, PA 16802.Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham 03824.Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham 03824.Department of Agriculture, Nutrition, and Food Systems, University of New Hampshire, Durham 03824. Electronic address: andre.brito@unh.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30591336

Citation

Isenberg, B J., et al. "Production, Milk Fatty Acid Profile, and Nutrient Utilization in Grazing Dairy Cows Supplemented With Ground Flaxseed." Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 102, no. 2, 2019, pp. 1294-1311.
Isenberg BJ, Soder KJ, Pereira ABD, et al. Production, milk fatty acid profile, and nutrient utilization in grazing dairy cows supplemented with ground flaxseed. J Dairy Sci. 2019;102(2):1294-1311.
Isenberg, B. J., Soder, K. J., Pereira, A. B. D., Standish, R., & Brito, A. F. (2019). Production, milk fatty acid profile, and nutrient utilization in grazing dairy cows supplemented with ground flaxseed. Journal of Dairy Science, 102(2), 1294-1311. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2018-15376
Isenberg BJ, et al. Production, Milk Fatty Acid Profile, and Nutrient Utilization in Grazing Dairy Cows Supplemented With Ground Flaxseed. J Dairy Sci. 2019;102(2):1294-1311. PubMed PMID: 30591336.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Production, milk fatty acid profile, and nutrient utilization in grazing dairy cows supplemented with ground flaxseed. AU - Isenberg,B J, AU - Soder,K J, AU - Pereira,A B D, AU - Standish,R, AU - Brito,A F, Y1 - 2018/12/24/ PY - 2018/07/12/received PY - 2018/11/01/accepted PY - 2018/12/29/pubmed PY - 2019/3/5/medline PY - 2018/12/29/entrez KW - energy supplementation KW - milk yield KW - pasture KW - α-linolenic acid SP - 1294 EP - 1311 JF - Journal of dairy science JO - J Dairy Sci VL - 102 IS - 2 N2 - Flaxseed has been extensively used as a supplement for dairy cows because of its high concentrations of energy and the n-3 fatty acid (FA) cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3. However, limited information is available regarding the effect of ground flaxseed on dry matter intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, and nutrient utilization in grazing dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 111 ± 49 d in milk in the beginning of the study were used in a randomized complete block design to investigate the effects of supplementing herbage (i.e., grazed forage) with ground corn-soybean meal mix (control diet = CTRL) or ground flaxseed (flaxseed diet = FLX) on animal production, milk FA, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility. The study was conducted from June to September 2013, with data and sample collection taking place on wk 4, 8, 12, and 16. Cows were fed a diet formulated to yield a 60:40 forage-to-concentrate ratio consisting of (dry matter basis): 40% cool-season perennial herbage, 50% partial total mixed ration, and 10% of ground corn-soybean meal mix or 10% ground flaxseed. However, estimated herbage DMI averaged 5.59 kg/d or 34% of the total DMI. Significant treatment by week interactions were observed for milk and blood urea N, and several milk FA (e.g., trans-10 18:1). No significant differences between treatments were observed for herbage and total DMI, milk yield, feed efficiency, concentrations and yields of milk components, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Total-tract digestibility of organic matter decreased, whereas that of neutral detergent fiber increased with feeding FLX versus CTRL. No treatment effects were observed for ruminal concentrations of total volatile FA and NH3-N, and ruminal proportions of acetate and propionate. Ruminal butyrate tended to decrease, and the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased in the FLX diet. Most saturated and unsaturated FA in milk fat were changed. Specifically, milk proportion of cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3, Σn-3 FA, and Σ18C FA increased, whereas that of cis-9,cis-12 18:2, Σn-6 FA, Σ odd-chain FA, Σ<16C FA, and Σ16C FA decreased with feeding FLX versus the CTRL diet. In conclusion, feeding FLX did not change yields of milk and milk components, but increased milk n-3 FA. Therefore, costs and industry adoption of premiums for n-3-enriched milk will determine the adoption of ground flaxseed in pasture-based dairy farms. SN - 1525-3198 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30591336/Production_milk_fatty_acid_profile_and_nutrient_utilization_in_grazing_dairy_cows_supplemented_with_ground_flaxseed_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-0302(18)31158-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -