Fracture resistance of cingulum rest seats in CAD-CAM tooth-colored crowns for removable partial denture abutments.J Prosthet Dent. 2019 May; 121(5):828-835.JP
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The prevalent use of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) for tooth-colored ceramic materials has led to several case reports and retrospective clinical studies of surveyed crowns used to support removable partial dentures. How the specific contour of a cingulum rest seat affects the fracture resistance of these CAD-CAM tooth-colored materials is unknown.
The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the fracture resistance of monolithic CAD-CAM tooth-colored mandibular canine-surveyed ceramic crowns with cingulum rest seats of different designs.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Five groups (n=24/group) of CAD-CAM tooth-colored crowns were milled from the same standard tessellation language (STL) file: group EM, lithium disilicate-based material (IPS e.max CAD CEREC blocks); group SM, zirconia-based material (NexxZr T); group LP, zirconia-based material (Lava Plus High Translucency); group ZC, zirconia-based material (ZirCAD LT); and group MZ, composite resin (MZ100 CEREC blocks), used as a control. Crowns from each group were divided into 2 subgroups representing 2 shapes of cingulum rest seat design: round design subgroup (n=12) with 0.5-mm radius of curvature and sharp design subgroup (n=12) with 0.25-mm radius of curvature for the rest seat preparation. The crowns were cemented with resin cement to a composite resin die on a steel nut. After 24 hours of storage in water at 37°C, the specimens were statically loaded to fracture with a custom metal retainer on top of the cingulum rest seat by using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.5 mm/min. Two-way ANOVA and the Tukey honestly significant difference tests were used to control the familywise error rate (α=.05). Representative specimens were examined using an optical stereomicroscope at ×10 magnification and a scanning electron microscope to determine the failure patterns and fracture mechanism.
The results of the ANOVA test indicated statistically significant differences by materials and rest seat designs (P<.001). The mean ±standard deviation maximal load capacity was 773.5 ±255.0 N for group MZ, 1124.9 ±283.9 N for group EM, 2784.1 ±400.5 N for group SM, 2526.9 ±547.1 N for group LP, and 3200.8 ±416.8 N for group ZC. The round design subgroups had an approximately 30% higher mean failure load than the sharp design subgroups for all surveyed crowns.
The present in vitro study demonstrated that zirconia-based groups fractured at twice the load as the lithium disilicate group. Of the 3 zirconia-based groups, group ZirCAD had a statistically greater fracture resistance than the other groups. Designing the cingulum rest seat to have a broad round shape provides a statistically significant higher fracture resistance than a sharp-shape design (P<.05).