Fungal infections in AIDS. Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis.Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1988 Jun; 2(2):447-56.ID
Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidioides immitis are two fungi that are regional in occurrence and cause opportunistic fungal infections in patients with AIDS. Many cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in patients months or years after they have been in an endemic area. These are obviously cases of reactivation of latent infections. With coccidioidomycosis, the cases have been reported from endemic areas, but some also appear to be reactivation infections, and we should anticipate such cases in nonendemic areas just as with histoplasmosis. The clinical presentations may be atypical, even mimicking acute bacterial sepsis. The diagnosis should be sought in any HIV-infected patient with an unexplained infection and residence or travel in an endemic area even in the remote past. Studies should include bone marrow examinations for histoplasmosis as well as skin biopsies with special strains and cultures for fungi for both infections. Sputum or bronchoscopy specimens have often been the source of a diagnosis in coccidioidomycosis. Serologic tests for antibody in both diseases yield inconsistently positive results in AIDS patients. Treatment of the acute infection should be with amphotericin B followed by maintenance suppressive therapy with ketoconazole or Amphotericin B.