Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Acute Pharmacokinetic Profile of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Human Blood and Oral Fluid.
J Anal Toxicol. 2019 May 01; 43(4):233-258.JA

Abstract

Currently, an unprecedented number of individuals can legally access cannabis. Vaporization is increasingly popular as a method to self-administer cannabis, partly due to perception of reduced harm compared with smoking. Few controlled laboratory studies of cannabis have used vaporization as a delivery method or evaluated the acute effects of cannabis among infrequent cannabis users. This study compared the concentrations of cannabinoids in whole blood and oral fluid after administration of smoked and vaporized cannabis in healthy adults who were infrequent users of cannabis. Seventeen healthy adults, with no past-month cannabis use, self-administered smoked or vaporized cannabis containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses of 0, 10 and 25 mg in six double-blind outpatient sessions. Whole blood and oral fluid specimens were obtained at baseline and for 8 h after cannabis administration. Cannabinoid concentrations were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods. Sensitivity, specificity and agreement between ELISA and LC-MS-MS results were assessed. Subjective, cognitive performance and cardiovascular effects were assessed. The highest concentrations of cannabinoids in both whole blood and oral fluid were typically observed at the first time point (+10 min) after drug administration. In blood, THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH and THCCOOH-glucuronide concentrations were dose-dependent for both methods of administration, but higher following vaporization compared with smoking. THC was detected longer in oral fluid compared to blood and THCCOOH detection in oral fluid was rare and highly erratic. For whole blood, greater detection sensitivity for ELISA testing was observed in vaporized conditions. Conversely, for oral fluid, greater sensitivity was observed in smoked sessions. Blood and/or oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations were weakly to moderately correlated with pharmacodynamic outcomes. Cannabis pharmacokinetics vary by method of inhalation and biological matrix being tested. Vaporization appears to be a more efficient method of delivery compared with smoking.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Dr., Baltimore, MD, USA.Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Dr., Baltimore, MD, USA.Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Dr., Baltimore, MD, USA.RTI International, Research Triangle Park, 3040 East Cornwallis Rd., NC, USA.Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Dr., Baltimore, MD, USA.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Division of Workplace Programs (DWP), 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD, USA.Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), Division of Workplace Programs (DWP), 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD, USA.Behavioral Pharmacology Research Unit, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5510 Nathan Shock Dr., Baltimore, MD, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30615181

Citation

Spindle, Tory R., et al. "Acute Pharmacokinetic Profile of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Human Blood and Oral Fluid." Journal of Analytical Toxicology, vol. 43, no. 4, 2019, pp. 233-258.
Spindle TR, Cone EJ, Schlienz NJ, et al. Acute Pharmacokinetic Profile of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Human Blood and Oral Fluid. J Anal Toxicol. 2019;43(4):233-258.
Spindle, T. R., Cone, E. J., Schlienz, N. J., Mitchell, J. M., Bigelow, G. E., Flegel, R., Hayes, E., & Vandrey, R. (2019). Acute Pharmacokinetic Profile of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Human Blood and Oral Fluid. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 43(4), 233-258. https://doi.org/10.1093/jat/bky104
Spindle TR, et al. Acute Pharmacokinetic Profile of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Human Blood and Oral Fluid. J Anal Toxicol. 2019 May 1;43(4):233-258. PubMed PMID: 30615181.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acute Pharmacokinetic Profile of Smoked and Vaporized Cannabis in Human Blood and Oral Fluid. AU - Spindle,Tory R, AU - Cone,Edward J, AU - Schlienz,Nicolas J, AU - Mitchell,John M, AU - Bigelow,George E, AU - Flegel,Ronald, AU - Hayes,Eugene, AU - Vandrey,Ryan, PY - 2018/09/19/received PY - 2018/10/23/revised PY - 2018/11/30/accepted PY - 2019/1/8/pubmed PY - 2019/10/8/medline PY - 2019/1/8/entrez SP - 233 EP - 258 JF - Journal of analytical toxicology JO - J Anal Toxicol VL - 43 IS - 4 N2 - Currently, an unprecedented number of individuals can legally access cannabis. Vaporization is increasingly popular as a method to self-administer cannabis, partly due to perception of reduced harm compared with smoking. Few controlled laboratory studies of cannabis have used vaporization as a delivery method or evaluated the acute effects of cannabis among infrequent cannabis users. This study compared the concentrations of cannabinoids in whole blood and oral fluid after administration of smoked and vaporized cannabis in healthy adults who were infrequent users of cannabis. Seventeen healthy adults, with no past-month cannabis use, self-administered smoked or vaporized cannabis containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) doses of 0, 10 and 25 mg in six double-blind outpatient sessions. Whole blood and oral fluid specimens were obtained at baseline and for 8 h after cannabis administration. Cannabinoid concentrations were assessed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) methods. Sensitivity, specificity and agreement between ELISA and LC-MS-MS results were assessed. Subjective, cognitive performance and cardiovascular effects were assessed. The highest concentrations of cannabinoids in both whole blood and oral fluid were typically observed at the first time point (+10 min) after drug administration. In blood, THC, 11-OH-THC, THCCOOH and THCCOOH-glucuronide concentrations were dose-dependent for both methods of administration, but higher following vaporization compared with smoking. THC was detected longer in oral fluid compared to blood and THCCOOH detection in oral fluid was rare and highly erratic. For whole blood, greater detection sensitivity for ELISA testing was observed in vaporized conditions. Conversely, for oral fluid, greater sensitivity was observed in smoked sessions. Blood and/or oral fluid cannabinoid concentrations were weakly to moderately correlated with pharmacodynamic outcomes. Cannabis pharmacokinetics vary by method of inhalation and biological matrix being tested. Vaporization appears to be a more efficient method of delivery compared with smoking. SN - 1945-2403 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30615181/Acute_Pharmacokinetic_Profile_of_Smoked_and_Vaporized_Cannabis_in_Human_Blood_and_Oral_Fluid_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jat/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jat/bky104 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -