Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate Cd phytotoxicity by altering Cd subcellular distribution and chemical forms in Zea mays.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 Apr 30; 171:352-360.EE
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) can relieve Cd phytotoxicity and improve plant growth, but the mechanisms involved in this process have still been not completely known. In the present work, a pot experiment was conducted to examine productions of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs), and absorption, chemical forms and subcellular distribution of Cd in maize (Zea mays) inoculated with or without AMF (Rhizophagus intraradices (Ri) and Glomus versiforme (Gv)) in Cd-amended soils (0, 1 and 5 mg Cd kg-1 soil). In general, both Ri and Gv inoculation dramatically enhanced biomass production and reduced Cd concentrations in shoots and roots of maize when compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment. Moreover, both Ri and Gv symbiosis obviously increased contents of GSH and PCs, both in shoots and roots. Subcellular distribution of Cd in maize indicated that most of Cd (more than 90%) was accumulated in cell wall and soluble fraction. In addition, Cd proportions in soluble fractions in shoots of maize inoculated with Gv or Ri were considerably increased, but reduced in cell wall fractions compared to non-mycorrhizal maize, indicating that mycorrhizal symbiosis promoted Cd transfer to vacuoles. Furthermore, proportions of Cd in inorganic and water-soluble forms were declined, but elevated in pectates and proteins-integrated forms in mycorrhizal maize, which suggested that Gv and Ri could convert Cd into inactive forms. These observations could provide a further understanding of potential Cd detoxification mechanism in maize inoculated with AMF.