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Spatial distribution and mass loading of phthalate esters in wastewater treatment plants in China: An assessment of human exposure.
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 15; 656:862-869.ST

Abstract

The occurrence and fate of nine phthalate esters (PAEs), including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di‑n‑butyl phthalate (DBP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), di (2‑ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di‑n‑hexyl phthalate (DNHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), and di‑n‑octyl phthalate (DNOP), in sludges collected from 46 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from 22 Chinese provinces were investigated. The nine PAEs were detected in almost all the sludge samples. DEHP was the most abundant congener in all sludge samples, followed by DBP and DIBP. The DEHP concentrations in sludge were in the range of 0.326-67.8 (mean: 14.7) μg/g dry weight (dw), which were at the lower bound or middle of the concentration range of DEHP in sludge globally (0.0200-3514 μg/g dw). Spatial distribution and mass loading of PAEs in WWTPs were investigated. The concentrations of Σ9PAEs in sludges from different provinces were in the order as follows: Jilin (40.2 μg/g dw) > Liaoning (38.9 μg/g dw) > Beijing (30.7 μg/g dw), while the mass loading of ∑9PAEs in sludges were Guangdong (10.1 tons/yr) > Liaoning (9.97 tons/yr) > Shandong (5.59 tons/yr). Our study showed that the geographical distribution of PAEs in sludges was similar to that in indoor dusts found in earlier study, suggesting the existence of a common source for these chemicals in both matrices. Based on the concentrations measured, human exposure to PAEs through sludge application in soil was evaluated and the exposure dose is minor.

Authors+Show Affiliations

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; College of Life Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006, China.Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding, Hebei 071003, China.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address: cyliao@rcees.ac.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30625672

Citation

Zhu, Qingqing, et al. "Spatial Distribution and Mass Loading of Phthalate Esters in Wastewater Treatment Plants in China: an Assessment of Human Exposure." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 656, 2019, pp. 862-869.
Zhu Q, Jia J, Zhang K, et al. Spatial distribution and mass loading of phthalate esters in wastewater treatment plants in China: An assessment of human exposure. Sci Total Environ. 2019;656:862-869.
Zhu, Q., Jia, J., Zhang, K., Zhang, H., & Liao, C. (2019). Spatial distribution and mass loading of phthalate esters in wastewater treatment plants in China: An assessment of human exposure. The Science of the Total Environment, 656, 862-869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.458
Zhu Q, et al. Spatial Distribution and Mass Loading of Phthalate Esters in Wastewater Treatment Plants in China: an Assessment of Human Exposure. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 15;656:862-869. PubMed PMID: 30625672.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Spatial distribution and mass loading of phthalate esters in wastewater treatment plants in China: An assessment of human exposure. AU - Zhu,Qingqing, AU - Jia,Jiabao, AU - Zhang,Kegang, AU - Zhang,He, AU - Liao,Chunyang, Y1 - 2018/11/30/ PY - 2018/10/12/received PY - 2018/11/28/revised PY - 2018/11/29/accepted PY - 2019/1/11/entrez PY - 2019/1/11/pubmed PY - 2019/2/23/medline KW - Human exposure KW - Mass loading KW - Phthalate esters KW - Sludge KW - Spatial distribution SP - 862 EP - 869 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 656 N2 - The occurrence and fate of nine phthalate esters (PAEs), including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di‑n‑butyl phthalate (DBP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), di (2‑ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di‑n‑hexyl phthalate (DNHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP), and di‑n‑octyl phthalate (DNOP), in sludges collected from 46 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from 22 Chinese provinces were investigated. The nine PAEs were detected in almost all the sludge samples. DEHP was the most abundant congener in all sludge samples, followed by DBP and DIBP. The DEHP concentrations in sludge were in the range of 0.326-67.8 (mean: 14.7) μg/g dry weight (dw), which were at the lower bound or middle of the concentration range of DEHP in sludge globally (0.0200-3514 μg/g dw). Spatial distribution and mass loading of PAEs in WWTPs were investigated. The concentrations of Σ9PAEs in sludges from different provinces were in the order as follows: Jilin (40.2 μg/g dw) > Liaoning (38.9 μg/g dw) > Beijing (30.7 μg/g dw), while the mass loading of ∑9PAEs in sludges were Guangdong (10.1 tons/yr) > Liaoning (9.97 tons/yr) > Shandong (5.59 tons/yr). Our study showed that the geographical distribution of PAEs in sludges was similar to that in indoor dusts found in earlier study, suggesting the existence of a common source for these chemicals in both matrices. Based on the concentrations measured, human exposure to PAEs through sludge application in soil was evaluated and the exposure dose is minor. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30625672/Spatial_distribution_and_mass_loading_of_phthalate_esters_in_wastewater_treatment_plants_in_China:_An_assessment_of_human_exposure_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(18)34813-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -