Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or from Pakistan - United States, 2016-2018.MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019 Jan 11; 68(1):11-13.MM
In February 2018, a typhoid fever outbreak caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins, was reported in Pakistan. During November 2016-September 2017, 339 cases of this extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi strain were reported in Pakistan, mostly in Karachi and Hyderabad; one travel-associated case was also reported from the United Kingdom (1). More cases have been detected in Karachi and Hyderabad as surveillance efforts have been strengthened, with recent reports increasing the number of cases to 5,372 (2). In the United States, in response to the reports from Pakistan, enhanced surveillance identified 29 patients with typhoid fever who had traveled to or from Pakistan during 2016-2018, including five with XDR Typhi. Travelers to areas with endemic disease, such as South Asia, should be vaccinated against typhoid fever before traveling and follow safe food and water practices. Clinicians should be aware that most typhoid fever infections in the United States are fluoroquinolone nonsusceptible and that the XDR Typhi outbreak strain associated with travel to Pakistan is only susceptible to azithromycin and carbapenems.