Preventive intramuscular phenylephrine in elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial.Int J Surg. 2019 Feb; 62:5-11.IJ
Phenylephrine is the first-line vasoactive drug in the cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. The rate of hypotension remains high after intravenous preventive use of phenylephrine. However, few studies have investigated the effect of preventive intramuscular phenylephrine via a longer period of usage on fetal and maternal outcomes.
A total of 99 healthy parturients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomly allocated into three groups: M group (preventive intramuscular use of 5 mg phenylephrine), V group (preventive intravenous use of 100 μg phenylephrine), and P group (0.9% normal saline placebo). Rescue phenylephrine, ephedrine and atropine were used intraoperatively to adjust blood pressure and heart rate. The primary outcome was umbilical artery pH.
Significant differences in umbilical artery pH (M group: 7.32 ± 0.05 versus V group: 7.25 ± 0.04 versus P group: 7.21 ± 0.03, P < 0.05), fetal acidosis (M group: 3% [n = 33] versus V group: 15% [n = 33] versus P group: 30% [n = 33], P = 0.01) and maternal intraoperative hypotension (M group: 12%  versus V group: 39%  versus P group: 73% , P < 0.0001) were identified among the groups. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that treating arms, neonatal birthweight and the interval from the end of anesthesia to baby delivery were associated with umbilical artery pH.
Compared with the preventive intravenous use of phenylephrine and placebo, preventive intramuscular phenylephrine exhibited a better neonatal acid-base status and more stable maternal hemodynamics in elective cesarean under spinal anesthesia.