Comparison of Outcomes of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma Using Three Different Conditioning Regimens.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2019 05; 25(5):1039-1044.BB
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for patients with multiple myeloma, as it provides a graft-versus-myeloma effect alongside a myeloma-free graft. Although reduced-intensity conditioning regimens decrease nonrelapse mortality (NRM), there is a paucity of data with regard to the ideal conditioning regimen in myeloma. We conducted a retrospective comparison of 3 different preparative regimens used for allo-HCT for multiple myeloma at our institution in recent clinical trials: busulfan/fludarabine (BuFlu), fludarabine/melphalan 100 mg/m2 (FM100), and fludarabine/melphalan 140 mg/m2 (FM140). NRM, progression-free survival (PFS) at 3 years, and overall survival (OS) at 3 years were the primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints included time to engraftment, and the incidence of grades II through IV acute graft-versus-host disease and chronic graft-versus-host disease. A total of 73 patients received allo-HCT with these regimens. NRM at 3 years was seen in 3 (21%), 5 (28%), and 6 (24%) patients in the BuFlu, FM100, and FM140 groups, respectively. Three-year PFS in the BuFlu, FM100, and FM140 groups was 16% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 2.1), 26% (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.2), and 11% (reference), respectively. Three-year OS in the BuFlu, FM100, and FM140 groups was 39% (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5 to 2.2), 43% (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.4), and 32% (reference), respectively. High-risk cytogenetics and relapsed disease prior to allo-HCT were found to be independent predictors of inferior OS on multivariate analysis, with a HR of 2.1 (P = .02) and 2.6 (P = .004), respectively. In contrast, the preparative regimen did not emerge as a predictor of PFS or OS. Durable clinical remission can be achieved in 11% to 25% of patients with multiple myeloma with the use of allo-HCT without any significant difference in the safety or efficacy of the conditioning regimen. High-risk cytogenetics and relapsed disease prior to transplant were associated with inferior PFS and OS.