Factors Related to Average Concentric Velocity of Four Barbell Exercises at Various Loads.J Strength Cond Res. 2019 Mar; 33(3):597-605.JS
Fahs, CA, Blumkaitis, JC, and Rossow, LM. Factors related to average concentric velocity of four barbell exercises at various loads. J Strength Cond Res 33(3): 597-605, 2019-The resistance exercise load is the primarily determinant of the average concentric velocity (ACV) during a repetition. It is unknown whether individual factors such as training experience or anthropometrics also influence the ACV. Previous research has shown the ACV during the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) varies between exercises, but it is not clear whether ACV is different between exercises at various percentages of the 1RM. This information could provide practical guidelines for trainees using ACV to select training loads. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether training age, current training frequency, limb length, height, and relative strength are related to ACV at loads between 35 and 100% of the 1RM for the squat, bench press, deadlift, and overhead press. A secondary purpose was to compare the ACV values between the 4 lifts at each relative load. Fifty-one (18 women and 33 men) completed 2 testing sessions in which the squat, bench press, deadlift, and overhead press ACV were measured during a modified 1RM protocol. Average concentric velocity values were significantly different among the 4 lifts (p < 0.05) at all relative loads between 35 and 100% 1RM except for 55% 1RM (p = 0.112). Generally, compared at the same relative loads, the overhead press exhibited the greatest ACV followed by the squat, bench press, and deadlift (in order). In addition, relative strength level was inversely related to ACV at maximal loads (≥95% 1RM) for the squat, bench press, and deadlift while height was positively related to ACV at moderate loads (55% 1RM) for all lifts (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the load-velocity profile is unique for each of these exercises, and that velocity ranges used for exercise prescription should be specific to the exercise. A trainee's relative strength and height may be a primary influence on the ACV.